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Full text of "Restoration of Ford's Theatre, Washington D.C."

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presented by 





(national archives) 
Figure i. Last photograph of Abraham Lincoln, April lo, 1865, by Alexander Gardner. 




United States Department of the Interior 
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary 

National Park Service 
Conrad L. Wirth, Director 







Prepared Under the General Direction of 
Conrad L. Wirth 


And the Technical Supervision of 
Randle B. Tructt 



William M. Haussmann 


George J. Olszewski, Ph. D. 












The National Park System, of which Ford's 
Theatre National Historic Site is a unit, is dedicated to 
conserving the scenic, scientific, and historic heritage of 
the United States for the benefit and inspiration of its 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.00 (paper cover) 



Foreword ix 

Preface '^^ 






The First Baptist Church of Washington 5 

Ford's Theatrical Venture, 1861-1862 7 

Ford's Atheneum, March 19 to December 30, 1862 9 

PART II: FORD'S THEATRE, 1863-1865 13 

Plans for a New Structure 13 

Acquisition of the Site ; 17 

Financing of the Project 17 

The Washington Theatre Company 17 

Loans on the property 19 

Sale of stock certificates 19 

Construction of Ford's Theatre 19 

Laying of the Cornerstone 21 

Foundations 21 

Exterior of Ford's Theatre 21 

North wall 22 

West wall 23 

South wall 26 

East wall 30 

North dressing room wing 31 

Addition to the south 31 

Other exterior features 32 

Interior of Ford's Theatre 33 

Lobby 35 

Box office 35 

Orchestra and parquet 35 

Dress circle 39 

Family circle 39 

Boxes 43 

The Presidential Box 43 

Auditorium 45 

Orchestra pit 45 

Stage 45 

PART 11: FORD'S THEATRE, 1863-1865— Continued 
Construction of Ford's Theatre — Continued 

Interior of Ford's Theatre — Continued Pag, 

Basement 47 

North wing 48 

South addition 51 


Introduction 53 

Ford's Theatre, April 14, 1865 53 

The Assassination of the President 56 

Aftermath of Lincoln's Death 61 



Instrument Control 69 

Basement Plans 69 

Ground Floor Plan 73 

Second Floor Plan 79 

Third Floor Plan 81 

Reflected Ceiling Plan 83 

Roof Plan 87 

West Elevation 87 

North Elevation 89 

East Elevation 89 

South Elevation 89 

Longitudinal and Cross Sections 93 

Detailed Drawings 93 




INDEX 130 


Ford's Theatre is the Nation's historic site that 
memorializes one of the saddest moments in the 
history of our country, the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Following the trial of the Lincoln 
conspirators and the purchase and remodeling of 
the building by the Federal Government in 1865, 
its history was so shrouded in unreality that it was 
difficult to separate fact from fiction. Ever since 
1932, when the Lincoln Museum was established 
in the building under the administration of the 
National Park Service, visitors have expressed 
concern over the fact that this historic shrine, so 
closely associated with the death of Lincoln, has 
not been restored to its original condition as a 
memorial. It was with this objective in mind that 
the Congress provided funds to carry out historical 
and architectural research on the building with a 
view towards its eventual restoration to its orig- 
inal appearance as of the night of April 14, 1865. 

Preliminary investigations began in 1955, when, 
under the provisions of Public Law 372, 83d Con- 
gress, the National Capital Region prepared a 
preliminary engineering study. Additional funds 
were appropriated by Congress under the provi- 
sions of Public Law 86-455, 86th Congress, to 
carry out "preliminary architectural and historical 
research, the preparation of construction draw- 
ings and for exhibit planning." 

The present Historic Structures Report, Resto- 
ration of Ford's Theatre, represents the sum total 
of our investigations into every known public and 
private documentary source of evidence on the 
subject. The facts presented here are the best 

available and would provide for the full resto- 
ration of the theatre. If funds are provided 
promptly, the restoration of Ford's Theatre can 
be completed by the 100th anniversary of the 
tragedy occurring therein, as a living memorial 
to the Great Emancipator. 

New interpretive exhibits of contemporary de- 
sign are planned for the Lincoln Museum to be 
installed in the restored structure. Here the 
Lincoln Story will continue to be depicted as in 
the past to provide renewed inspiration to the 
thousands of American and foreign visitors who 
yearly visit the hallowed shrines of America's 
heritage in our Nation's Capital. 

This report is the result of the effective col- 
laboration of the National Capital Region's his- 
torical and architectural staffs. William M. 
Haussmann, Chief, National Capital Office, De- 
'sign and Construction, coordinated the entire 
project. William A. Dennin, Supervisory Archi- 
tect, contributed the architectural data and, with 
Laima J. Kalnins, prepared the architectural 
drawings. Randle B. Truett, Regional Historian, 
supervised the preparation of the historical mate- 
rial. The overall report was researched, written, 
indexed, and prepared for publication by Dr. G. J. 

Conrad L. Wirth, 


April 14, 1963. 



Ford's Theatre as it stands today in the Na- 
tion's capital bears only an outward resemblance to 
the popular theatre of Civil War days. Launched 
into international prominence because of the 
tragedy marking the assassination of Abraham 
Lincoln, it is now the site of the Lincoln Museum 
where, yearly, thousands of visitors from all over 
the world pay their respects to the President who 
fused the Federal Union into one indissoluble 

Externally the west facade and north and south 
walls still remain of the original theatre, although 
they have been subject to modification, repair and 
remodeling over the years. The rear or east wall, 
site of the exit door through which the assassin, 
John Wilkes Booth, escaped, has been completely 
rebuilt. In the Lincoln Museum proper, there 
is little, if any, indication of the original theatre 
aside from markings on the museum floor in- 
dicating the extent of the forestage and the lo- 
cation of the presidential box. From here an 
outline of the assassin's footsteps, marking his 
escape route, complete this part of the picture. A 
diorama of the stage as it appeared on the night 
of April 14, 1865, is one of the few items show- 
ing the original interior of the theatre. 

From that fateful night of Good Friday, 1865, 
until the hanging of the conspirators on July 7, 
1865, Ford's Theatre was guarded by federal 
troops. On July 8, it was returned to John T. 
Ford, the owner. On July 10, it was seized once 
again by order of the Secretary of War, Edwin M. 
Stanton. Subsequently, the building was leased 
by the government and in 1866 purchased by act 
of Congress. 

By this time the theatre had been remodeled 
into a three-story office building for the use of the 
government. Thereafter it was the home of the 
Army Medical Museum to 1877 and the principal 

office of the Adjutant General for compiling the 
official service records of veterans of the Civil War. 
Hundreds of clerks worked on this project. Trag- 
edy struck the building once again in June 1893 
when part of the overloaded interior collapsed 
killing twenty-two federal employees and injuring 
sixty-five. The structure was then closed by order 
of Congress and until 1932, when the present 
Lincoln Museum was opened in the building under 
the administration of the National Park Service, 
it was used for the storage of public documents. 

Throughout these years there was little thought 
of restoring the theatre to its original appearance 
as a memorial to the Martyred President. When 
public interest in its restoration was first brought 
to the attention of Congress after World War II, 
the building became the subject of considerable 
controversy. Nevertheless, public interest con- 
tinued to be manifested in the restoration of Ford's 
Theatre especially when Congress took the initi- 
ative and provided funds for a preliminary en- 
gineering report on the structure in 1954. In 
1959 renewed interest was aroused in the full 
restoration of Ford's Theatre as part of the Civil 
War Centennial Celebration and the MISSION 
66 program of the National Park Service. Op- 
position to the restoration now ceased as Congress 
voted funds for the present project. 

Public Law 86-455 authorized the National 
Park Service to complete preliminary architec- 
tural and historical research on old Ford's Theatre 
building, to prepare construction drawings and to 
draw up plans for a modern exhibit of con- 
temporary design to house the Lincoln Museum. 
This Historic Structures Report, Restoration of 
Ford's Theatre, was begun in September 1960 and 
presents information available from all known 
official sources and private collections. Since 
methods of approach to the historical and archi- 


tectural findings are delineated more fully in the 
body of the report, a brief indication of some of 
its more outstanding features as well as an 
acknowledgement of source material is considered 
timely and proper. 

The study is in two basic sections, historical 
and architectural. It presents the Historical Data 
in three parts followed by the Architectural Data 
in one. Part I of the historical data gives a brief 
history of the site and the forerunner of the 
present structure. It includes material on the 
First Baptist Church of Washington, its leasing 
to John T. Ford, its conversion into Ford's Aethe- 
neum, and its final destruction by fire. 

Part II is the bulk of the overall report and pre- 
sents all the historical material currently available 
on the structure. The narrative includes a dis- 
cussion of some of the many problems encountered 
by Ford in constructing his theatre in wartime 
Washington; his attempts to finance its construc- 
tion; his efforts to obtain a Congressional charter; 
the acquisition of adjacent land: and a concise and 
factual narrative of the combined results of his- 
torical and architectural research on the exterior 
and interior of the theatre. Often the results of 
countless hours of research and of decisions ar- 
rived at in joint meetings of the historians and 
architects are given in a terse statement of ac- 
cepted evidence. Part II also includes the re- 
sults of architectural exploration of the building 
to confirm historical findings and to explore leads 
resulting from historical research. 

Owing to the intense interest displayed in the 
facts surrounding the assassination of Lincoln, a 
concise summary of events leading to the tragedy 
has been included in Part III. It also includes a 
brief resume of the theatre's history after its con- 
version into an office building until the Lincoln 
Museum was installed on the first floor in 1932. 

The Architectural Data includes all the evidence 
accepted by the architects in reaching their de- 
cisions and the reasons for such acceptance. It 
represents the result of the combined work of the 
historical and architectural staffs. The Historic 
American Building Survey drawings, a full set 
of which is included in the report, represents the 
final decisions of the architects. They form the 
basis of the construction drawings, now being pre- 
pared, which will be used for the full restoration 
of Ford's Theatre. 

A brief section on Furnishings and Exhibition 
Data completes the narrative of the report. 
Therein is included all known information on the 
historical furnishings of the theatre, indicating 
what original materials have been donated to 
the Lincoln Museum. The most recent addition 
to the collection is the original mid-nineteenth 
century clock (Figure 58) from the greenroom of 
the theatre, donated by Mario Da Parma of New 
York City. A furnishings plan to be used in the 
restoration of the theatre is in preparation. 

In the course of research on this study, prac- 
tically every field of possible information was ex- 
plored. For instance, attempts were made to 
locate existing theatres in the United States which 
would be comparable in construction to the origi- 
nal Ford's Theatre. Only Ford's Theatre, 
Baltimore, and Thalian Hall, Wilmington, N.C., 
possessed a few useful architectural details. 
Photographs were of particular significance in the 
research, often proving to be the sole source of 
specific types of documentary information. While 
the majority are from the files of Abbie Rowe, 
National Park Service, some unknown Brady 
photographs were located in addition to the 
standard materials in the Brady collections of 
the National Archives and the Library of Con- 
gress. These hitherto unpublished Brady photo- 
graphs, shown in Figures 28 and 32 with enlarged 
details in Figures 30 and 31, were uncovered by 
the Regional Historian, during a visit in 1961 
to the Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 
Illinois. Other newly-discovered photographs are 
Figures 14 and 48, the latter being from the col- 
lection of the Lincoln National Life Foundation, 
Fort Wayne, Indiana. 

Because of the technical nature of this study, 
certain aspects of the theatre's history has been 
included in keeping with the tradition of the 
living theatre. The fact should not be overlooked 
that before Ford's Theatre went dark, it was con- 
sidered to be one of the finest for its day and was 
a distinct cultural asset to the Nation's capital. A 
few facts may bear this out. 

John T. Ford brought to the footlights of Ford's 
Theatre, during the 495 performances of its two 
seasons, some of the greatest theatrical talent that 
ever graced the American stage. Some of it was 
unique to growing America. For instance, among 
those who made memorable appearance at Ford's 


were: Lincoln's favorite Shakespearean actor, 
James Henry Hackett, who was considered to be 
the most famous American interpreter of Falstaff; 
Edwin Forrest, who estabhshed the first $1000 
yearly prize to stimulate American playwriting and 
whose Othello was beyond compare; Edwin Booth 
(brother of the demented John Wilkes Booth) who 
was most probably America's greatest actor, ac- 
cording to George Freedley, the well-known 
theatre historian; and George Harrington, who 
took the nom de theatre of "George Christy," thus 
continuing the tradition of "Christy's Minstrels." 
Original playbills will also be found in the body 
of the report. Furthermore, a list of the oc- 
casions on which Lincoln attended Ford's Theatre 
and a complete list of all performances given at 
Ford's is included in the appendix. This material, 
it is hoped, will prove of wide interest to students 
of the American theatre for it is one of the unique 
features of the report. The bibliography includes 
the principal documentary sources and should 
prove useful to those desirous of exploring a fas- 
cinating subject but which is beyond the scope of 
this study. The index has been especially pre- 
pared with cross references to the text, illustrations 
and architectural drawings in answer to the many 
requests of students for information which will 
enable them to prepare models of this historic site. 
While the assistance of persons interviewed is in- 
cluded in the text, special mention should be made 
of the following with a word of thanks to those 
who may ha\'e been overlooked. Ample footnotes 
throughout the study permit corroboration of all 

Without the continued interest of friends of the 
Ford Theatre project in the Congress, this study 
could not have been undertaken. Among these 
are Senator Carl Hayden of Arizona ; Senator 
Milton R. Young of North Dakota ; and the follow- 
ing members and former members of the House 
of Representatives : Ben F. Jensen of Iowa ; Fred 
Schwengel of Iowa ; George Dondero of Michigan ; 
Clement J. Zablocki of Wisconsin; the late 
Chauncey W. Reed of Illinois; and the late Clyde 
Doyle of California. 

Ralph R. Roberts, Clerk of the House, and his 
Deputy, H. Newlin Megill, made available legis- 
lative records now on deposit with the National 
Archives. John F. Haley, Staff Director, Joint 
Committee on Printing, deserves special thanks 

for his interest and suggestions regarding publica- 
tion of the report. J. George Stewart, Architect 
of the Capitol, provided much information on the 
work of his predecessor, Edward R. Clark, who 
supervised the remodeling of Ford's Theatre in 
1865. Mrs. Lillian R. Kessel provided docu- 
mentary information from the records of the Li- 
brary of the Architect of the Capitol. 

At the Library of Congress, Dr. David Meams, 
Dr. C. Percy Powell, Dr. E. N. Waters, John W. 
Peros, Miss Virginia Daiker, Frederick R. Goff, 
and Paul E. Swigart provided information and 
copies of materials from their special collections. 

Former colleagues at the National Archives pro- 
vided the bulk of documentary materials used in 
the study and are deserving of special mention. 
They are: Elmer Orris Parker, Sara D. Jackson, 
Ralph Huss, George P. Perros, Philip P. Ward, 
Richard S. Maxwell and Miss Camille Hannon of 
the Library staff. Thomas H. Bailey and Elmer 
Roy Griffith provided especially fine photographic 
reproductions of archival materials. 

Unique finds from theatre collections were pro- 
vided by the New York Public Library, Harvard 
University Library and the Maryland Historical 
Society, the latter being custodian of the Ford 
Family Papers. 

Materials of a genealogical nature, which helped 
in tracing some of the more elusive aspects of the 
theatre's history, were provided by George D. 
Ford, Frank Ford, Mario Da Parma, Colonel Ford 
Richardson, Mrs. John T. Ford, HI, and John 
Ford Sellers. All are descendents or related to 
descendants of the Ford family which operated the 
theatre and their contributions are noted in the 
body of the report. Backstage operations and 
traditions of the theatre were brought to life by 
John T. McLaughlin, manager. Ford's Theatre, 
Baltimore; Scott Kirkpatrick, manager. National 
Theatre, Washington, and the following members 
of the production staff" and cast of the "Sound of 
Music": Sammy Lambert, William O'Brien, 
Karen Ford, Jeanne Shea and Peter Laurini. 

Specialists in various fields read parts of the 
report and provided useful suggestions. Among 
them are: Reverend Gilbert V. Hartke, Head, 
Department of Speech and Drama, Catholic Uni- 
versity ; George Freedley, Curator, Theatre Collec- 
tion, New York Public Library; and S. Surjalla, 
noted scenery designer. 


The overall aspects of the study were prepared 
under the guidance of T. Sutton Jett, Director, 
National Capital Region; and Cornelius W. Heine, 
Assistant Regional Director, Conservation, Inter- 
pretation and Use. Herbert E. Kahler, Chief, 
Division of History and Archeology, and Dr. 
Charles Porter, HI, Branch of History, National 
Park Service, read the report. Randle B. Truett, 
Chief Historian, National Capital Region, de- 
serves special thanks for his technical guidance 
during all stages of the work. 

William M. Haussmann gave technical direction 
to the work of the architects. Charles W. Lessig 
supervised preparation of the Historic American 
Building Survey drawings which were drawn by 

William A. Dennin and Laima J. Kalnins. The 
drawings represent the conclusive evidence of the 
architects and copies have been deposited in the 
Library of Congress. The historical and architec- 
tural evidence presented herein is the best available 
and will lead to the authentic restoration of Ford's 
Theatre as it appeared on the night of April 14, 
1865. Both historians and architects look for the 
full restoration of Ford's Theatre so that the true 
story of this historic site may be properly inter- 
preted and be an inspiration to all mankind. 

G. J. Olszewski 

Ford's Theatre 
April 14, 1962 


Figure Pag« 

1. Last photograph of Abraham Lincoln, April 10, 1865, by Alexander 

Gardner " 

2. First Baptist Church of Washington, 1862 6 

3. John T. Ford, c. 1865 8 

4. First musical concert under Ford's management 9 

5. Program of second night of opening season, Ford's Atheneum 10 

6. Engineer probings of foundations of Ford's Theatre 11 

7. Program of Lincoln's favorite Shakespearean actor 12 

8. Personalities of Ford's Theatre 14 

9. Mr. and Mrs. Harry Clay Ford, c. 1870 15 

10. District Surveyor's plat. May 5, 1866 16 

11. HR 684, "An Act to Incorporate the Washington Theatre Company" . 18 

12. Ford's Theatres, Washington and Baltimore, 1863 20 

13. Architectural exploration for original cornerstone of Ford's Theatre by 

Architect Dennin and Historian Olszewski 22 

14. Ford's Theatre from F Street, April 1865 23 

15. Original wooden roof trusses still in use. Ford's Theatre, 1963 24 

16. Original wooden lookouts, interior view, 1963 25 

17. Old Ford's Theatre Building from F Street, July 4, 1961 26 

18. West Fagade, Old Ford's Theatre Building, August 2, 1963 27 

19. Architectural exploration of interior Ford's Theatre Building, March 15, 

1961 28 

20. Views of south wall. Ford's Theatre, 1930 29 

21. Contemporary sketch of east or rear wall by A. Berghaus 30 

22. Contemporary sketch by A. Berghaus of Ford's Theatre at time of 

assassination ■''1 

23. Contemporary photograph of Ford's Theatre and Star Saloon from E 

Street by M. Brady 32 

24. Contemporar/ sketch of overall scene in Ford's Theatre by A. Berghaus . 34 

25. Draftsman's c jpy of original sketch by Jno. T. Ford 36 

26. Ford Tneatre tickets, April 14, 1865 37 

27. Seat plan of orchestra and parquet 38 

28. View from stage of presidential box and general seating arrangements 

of Ford's Theatre 40 

29. Seat plan of dress circle 41 

30. Closeup of chairs in orchestra and dress circle 42 

31 . Closeup of seating arrangement in dress circle and benches of family 

circle 44 

32. Architectural details of presidential box and interior of Ford's Theatre. 46 

33. Contemporary sketch of passageway to presidential box and closeup of 

original door to box 7 48 

34. Details of decorations of presidential box and closeup of interior, April 

14, 1865 49 

35. Closeup of stage center by M. Brady, showing part of orchestra pit . . . 50 


36. Contemporary sketch of presidential box and interior of Ford's Theatre 

by A. Waud 51 

37. Original stage plan of Ford's Theatre used during the trial of the 

Lincoln conspirators 52 

38. View of rear wall at time of collapse of part of interior of Ford's Thea- 

tre, June 9, 1893 54 

39. Closeup of details of Star Saloon and possible location of cornerstone . . 55 

40. Final playbill prepared for Lincoln's attendance at Ford's Theatre, 

April 14, 1865 56 

4L Ticket for reserved orchestra chair, April 14, 1865 57 

42. Closeup of typical poster of Ford's Theatre, April 1865 58 

43. Stage setting at time of assassination, Act III, Scene 2, "Our American 

Cousin" 59 

44. Original pencil sketch by Jno. T. Ford while in Capital Prison, May 

1865 60 

45. Threatening letter received by Ford 62 

46. Final Treasury settlement for purchase of Ford's Theatre, July 21, 

1866 64 

47. Proposal of Architect of Capitol for remodeling Ford's Theatre, July 27, 

1865 65 

48. Early phase of remodeling of Ford's Theatre, c. September 1865 66 

49. Public advertisement for submitting bids for remodeling Ford's Theatre, 

August 4, 1865 70 

50. Contract for remodeling Ford's Theatre by Richard Dunbar, August 

4, 1865 71 

51. Proposal of Architect of Capitol for strengthening west facade of Ford's 

Theatre, August 4, 1 866 75 

52. Interior of Ford's Theatre Building after collapse in 1893 76 

53. Ford's memo supporting attorney's request to remove proscenium and 

iron columns from his theatre 71 

54. Detail of lintel and original casement window 82 

55. Interior of presidential box. (Upper) Painting by Chas. Gulager and 

(lower) sketch by A. Berghaus 100 

56. Original Treasury Guards flag, Washington engraving and sofa from 

presidential box 101 

57. Rocker in which Lincoln was shot 102 

58. Original French clock from greenroom of Ford's Theatre, 1865 103 

59. Program of Maggie Mitchell night Lincoln attended Ford's Theatre. ... 105 

60. Program of John Wilkes Booth night Lincoln attended Ford's Theatre. . 106 

61. Diorama of stage of Ford's Theatre, designed and built by Rudolf W. 

Bauss 108 

62. Letter of Frank Ford 124 


PLATE I. Ford'sTheatre, Washington, District of Columbia: Page 

Sketch Map Showing Location 68 

II. Basement Floor Plan 72 

III. First Floor Plan 74 

IV. Second Floor Plan 78 

V. Third Floor Plan 80 

VI. Reflected Ceiling Plan 84 

VII. Roof Plan 85 

VIII. West Elevation 86 

IX. North Elevation 88 

X. East Elevation 90 

XI. South Elevation 91 

XII. Cross Section, B-B 92 

XIII. Cross Section, A-A 94 

XIV. Longitudinal Section Through Centerline 95 

XV. Details of Presidential Box 96 

XVI. Front Elevation, Window Details 97 

XVII. Miscellaneous Details 98 

XVIII. Miscellaneous Details 99 

688-440 0—63- 



The structure studied in this report is the build- 
ing known as Old Ford's Theatre and its two 
annexes, the dressing room annex at the northeast 
corner of the building and the former Star Saloon 
building which was to the south. It is located at 
511 10th Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C., 
and faces west midway in the block between E and 
F Streets, Northwest. 


It is proposed that the entire structure, includ- 
ing the theatre's interior and the two annexes, be 
restored to their original appearance as of the 
night of the assassination of President Abraham 
Lincoln, April 14, 1865. This office recommends, 
therefore, that approval be given to the complete 
restoration of Ford's Theatre so that the scene of 
this tragic but historically significant event can be 
reproduced accurately and in the most minute 
detail. This office is also of the opinion that only 
by means of a complete restoration can the theatre 
be properly interpreted. Provision will also be 
made to house the Lincoln Museum and the Lin- 
coln Library within the structure. 


It is proposed that the structure be operated as 
a historic site under the National Capital Region, 
National Park Service, in approximately the same 
manner as at present with provision being made 
for adequate operating personnel. Within the in- 
terior of Ford's Theatre and the two annexes. 

sufficient space should be provided to facilitate the 
operation of the interpretive program as follows: 

(1) The basement floor of the south annex 
should include public rest rooms. The first floor 
should house a concession stand and rooms for 
guards and the historian/museum manager. The 
second floor should house an assembly room for 
school and other groups. The third floor should 
house the Lincoln Library and its historical col- 
lection of manuscripts. 

(2) The basement of the northeast annex should 
include storage space for study collections, a vault 
for maximum protection, and a storage room for 
framed pictures on racks. The first floor should 
contain a janitor's room and rest rooms for per- 
sonnel. The second, third, and fourth floors 
should contain the custodian's offices, a guard- 
room, and storage and work space. 

(3) Funds for refurnishing the restored struc- 
ture and for the installation of the Lincoln Mu- 
seum in the basement of Ford's Theatre to be 
equipped with modern museum cases and inter- 
pretive panels of contemporary design, and for the 
Lincoln Library, will be derived from a portion of 
the funds to be appropriated for full restoration 
of the structure. 


A preliminary estimate of the cost for a com- 
plete restoration of Old Ford's Theatre Building 
and the two annexes will be approximately 
$2,000,000. Owing to rising construction and 
restoration costs since the original estimate, the 
foregoing figure may be exceeded after completion 
of the architectural study and the final develop- 
ment of all plans and specifications. 



George J. Olszewski, Ph. D. 


National Capital Region 


PART I — Ford's Theatre Building, 18JJ-1862 


The site on which the Old Ford's Theatre Build- 
ing now stands was originally occupied by the First 
Baptist Church of Washington constructed in 
1833/ The edifice also became known as the 
Tenth Street Baptist Church to distinguish it from 
later-formed congregations.^ When the Fourth 
Baptist Congregation was formed on Thirteenth 
Street, Northwest, in 1859, it was joined by that 
of the First Baptist Church which gave its name 
to the united groups.^ The structure on Tenth 
Street, Northwest, was thereafter abandoned as a 
house of divine worship.* However, since there 
was a chancel or raised platform at the east end 
of the church to accommodate the pulpit and 
choir, it was not diihcult to rearrange the setting 
for musical concerts that were given from time to 

' Minutes of the Board of Trustees, First Baptist 
Church of Washington, DC, 1833-1859, passim. Cited 
hereafter as Board Minutes. Personal interviews, Dr. 
Edward H. Pruden, Pastor, First Baptist Church; Dr. M. 
Chandler Stith, Executive Secretary, District of Colum- 
bia Baptist Convention ; and Mrs. Dorothy Winchcole, 
Historian, First Church, to Olszewski, Washington, 
October 12-13, 1960, and March 21, 1962. Capital 
Baptist, V, No. 4 (October 29, 1959), 5. See also 
Dorothy Clark Winchcole, The First Baptists in Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1802-1952 (Washington, 1952), esp. pp. 
9-11, 43. National Intelligencer (D.C.), 1833-1859, 

' Stith, op. cit. 

'Ibid., and Capital Baptist, op. cit. 

' Stith, op. cit. See Figure 2, drawing by an unknown 
artist. Original in L.M.C. 

time in the church building.^ Undoubtedly, it 
was this feature of the structure that attracted the 
attention of John T. Ford, a theatre entrepreneur 
of Baltimore, Maryland, when he arrived in Wash- 
ington in the fall of 1861, seeking a location for 
theatrical purposes.^ 

It was about this time that the Board of Trustees 
of the First Baptist Church decided to divest itself 
of the land and building, owing to the financial 
burden of maintaining the structure since it was no 

' See Figure 4. Original playbill in Rare Book Divi- 
sion, Library of Congress (L.C.). National Intelligencer, 
November IB, 1861. 

'John Ford Sollers, Excerpts from the Theatrical 
Career of John T. Ford, 1959. Chap. Ill, p. 3. Sollers 
is the grandnephew of Harry Clay Ford and is writing 
this biography for his doctoral dissertation. He has 
presented copies of Chap. Ill and IV of his work to 
the Lincoln Museum Collection (L.M.C). Copy in 
Ford Theatre Collection (F.T.C.) which deals solely 
with the theatre and its history. NOTE: John T. Ford 
(b. April 16, 1829), son of Elias Ford of Baltimore, Md., 
was the eldest of the three brothers who operated Ford's 
Theatre, Washington. James Reed Ford (b. March 14, 
1840) was business manager and Harry Clay Ford (b. 
January 13, 1844), treasurer. Two sons of the latter, 
George D. Ford of La Canada, Calif., and Frank Ford 
of New York City are still living and have provided much 
valuable information on Ford's Theatre. Frank Ford 
recently presented his grandfather's Bible and other 
mementoes to the L.M.C. John T. Ford, who often 
signed his name "Jno.", will hereafter be referred to as 
'Tord" to distinguish him from other members of the 
family mentioned in the report. Ford was usually known 
around the theaU-e as "Mr. Ford"; H. Clay Ford was 
known as "Harry"; and James Reed as "Dick." George 
D. Ford to Olszewski, Lambs Club, New York City, April 
8,1962. See Figure 3. Original daguerrotype in L.M.C. 

LAID IN 1833 


ir^ii.vjQxeTn^'&feJVtsK ■ 

Figure 2 


longer being used for sectarian purposes.' Despite 
the prediction by a member of the Church Board 
of a dire fate for anyone who turned the former 
house of worship into a theatre,^ Ford leased the 
building on December 10, 1861, for five years with 
an option to buy the property at the end of that 
period.' Ford, at the time, also managed the 
Holliday Street Theatre or "Old Drury" as it was 
more generally known in theatrical circles, in 
Baltimore, Md., and the Academy of Music in 
Philadelphia.'" "Old Drury", built in 1796, was 
one of the oldest theatres in the east." Ford's 
Washington venture was to eventually earn him 
considerable popularity in theatrical circles,'^ 
despite the tragic end for which his theatre was 

The land on which the church stood originally 
encompassed that portion of Square 377 known as 
Lot 10, although a section of the present southeast 
corner, an area of approximately 20 feet north to 
south and 22.17 feet east to west formed part of 
a public alleyway laid out in 1792.^'' The alley- 
way formed a U-shaped area with a similar section 
on the northeast corner of Lot 1 1 and was joined 
by a 30-foot wide section to the rear of the 
church." From west to east the alleyway united 
an area of similar width at the rear of structures on 
Ninth Street. '° Midway, this alleyway was inter- 
sected by a 15-foot wide exit to F Street and was 
to gain dubious prestige in April 1865, when it 

'Stith, op. cit. Capital Baptist, V, No. 43 (October 
22, 1959), 5. 

'Board Minutes, 1861. Capital Baptist, V, No. 44 
(October 29, 1959), 5. 

° Sollers, op. cit. National Intelligencer, December 21, 

"See Figure 12. Sollers, op. cit., p. 6. 

" Advertisement in Polk's Directory of the District of 
Columbia (Washington, 1865), p. 197. 

" Sollers, op. cit. p. 6. 

" See original survey drawing in Certificates of Survey, 
Book 29, Square 377, 1792, Office of Surveyor, District 
of Columbia (O.S., D.C.), p. 100. 

"See Figure 10. Original in Record Group (R.G.) 
94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, Record 
and Pension OfSce, War Department, dated January 16, 
1904, file No. 765556 with 369101, National Archives 

^' "Plot of Survey of Alleys in Square 377," Washing- 
ton, January 22, 1912, in Certificates of Survey, Book 29, 
op. cit. 

became the escape route of the assassin of Presi- 
dent Abraham Lincoln.'" 


Ford immediately rented the theatre to George 
Christy who, however, advertised the structure as 
"The George Christy Opera House." " Christy's 
Minstrels performed with great success from De- 
cember 13, 1861, to February 27, 1862,'« when 
Ford closed the building and proceeded to reno- 
vate it.'" 

According to playbills of the time, general ad- 
mission was $1.00; reserved seats, 50^ extra. 
Tickets were sold by W. G. Metzerott, who con- 
ducted a music store on the corner of Pennsylvania 
Avenue and 11th Street, N.W., the site later to be 
occupied by the Evening Star Newspaper Com- 
pany. John T. Ford's name does not appear on 
advertisements for these performances.^" The 
fact that only two prices were charged for seats 
would indicate that no immediate interior struc- 
tural changes had been made and that the basic 
seating arrangement of the church pews and bal- 
cony had been adhered to. Undoubtedly, Ford 
was testing the reaction of war-time Washington 
audiences to a new theatrical venture before in- 
vesting additional funds in the building. Ford's 
main theatrical competitor at the time was Leon- 
ard Grover, who had started to rebuild the Old 
National Theatre, or Grover's Theatre, as it was 
also known, on E Street, N.W.^^ 

Following the final performance of the Christy 
Minstrels on February 27, 1862, Ford proceeded 
to remodel and to renovate the building based on 
plans drawn by James J. GifTord, chief carpenter 
of the Holliday Street Theatre in Baltimore.^'^ 
From contemporary newspaper descriptions -^ it 

"Ibid. National Intelligencer, April 15, 1865; New 
York Herald Tribune, April 15, 1865. 

" National Intelligencer, December 12, 1861, to Febru- 
ary 26, 1862, passim. Sollers, op. cit., p. 3, n. 76. 

"* National Intelligencer, op. cit. 

"° Sollers, op. cit., p. 3. 

"* See Figure 4. 

^ Sollers, op. cit., p. 4. National Intelligencer, March 
18, 1862. 

" Sollers, op. cit., p. 3. 

"National Intelligencer, December 1861 to March 
1862, passim. 



Figure 3. John T. Ford, c. 1865, from an original daguerreotype. 


is possible to reconstruct to some extent the gen- 
eral appearance of what subsequently became 
known as Ford's Atheneum. In addition, a brief 
analysis of the available evidence regarding the 
theatre and its tragic end may prove to be of 
value in bolstering the validity of some of the 
assumptions reached in tracing the construction of 
Ford's New Theatre and its history to the time of 
Lincoln's assassination.^* 

DECEMBER 30, 1862 

On February 28, 1862, Ford started renovating 
the building, investing $10,000 in new construc- 
tion and remodeling.^^ Ford and Gifford un- 
doubtedly planned well for, despite war-time re- 
strictions on materials and labor, the renovated 
building was opened three weeks later on March 
19, 1862, under Ford's own name as "Ford's 
Atheneum." ^^ John T. Ford was listed on the 
playbills as manager and proprietor, John B. 
Wright as stage manager, and Eugene Fenelon as 
orchestra leader.^^ However, all details of the 
interior decorations had not been completed 
since, for a week after the opening, playbills of 
the theatre begged the indulgence of its patrons.^" 
Nevertheless, the National Intelligencer, hailed 
the completion of Ford's Atheneum as fulfilling a 
long felt need for a first-class theatre.^' Ford had 
thus gained an advantage over his principal rival, 
Grover, who was not able to open his New National 
until more than a month later on April 21, 1862.^° 
An indication of some of the changes which had 
been made in the interior of Ford's Atheneum is 
shown by the change in seat prices. These were : 
orchestra chairs, $1.00; dress circle and parquet, 
500; balcony seats, $1.00; and family circle, 250.^' 

" See Figure 6. 
^ SoUers, op. cit 
" Ibid. 
" See Figure 5. 
^ Ibid. 

"March 18, 1862. 
^ Sellers, op. cit., p 
^ See Figure 5. 

p. 3. 



TucMlay Ev^JTov. 19,^61 



Th« pnblia *r« rwTtMtftillj iDforiM^ lb*t 

The 0el6br»t«d Ountatrloe, 

Whim pMi meow ia tlw AouUnki of M<Mk la K«« York, PbtU<l«lf4l^ Mi 
BoitoB. bM piMwi b«T In tb« froal ruk of tWioa Oncvrt Hiuffn. *II1 Mk« km 

I^First Appearance 

In WubiK||Ma. U tba ■hor* Ma»d plH», 


Mm*. Amalie StrakoMh, 
Sig. Centinwri, 

Tb« Pftinoua BultotM, 

Harry Sandenon, 

Th« Tounc Am«rlcui Ptanlal. 

Mrcfttr nwi Cm4w tir, Cari Sfkretaer 

Progrramme— Part L 

I. RcMAKKA— I d<M Vt»Mri Viau 

Ms. Otntlmeil 

■i. KatUMD MiToimi««D V. If . C»Ol-C« 

■ms. AmelU StrakoMk. 

3. PuHo Sola— PaaiuU fron Scmlnaad* Ho**!*) 

HoniT latKlerwa. 

4. OBJun> AaiA— (»Mg by iIm (i«««« •'f Nl^i to lUflt riali »tijn 

HtoOutotU PattL 

(. L Akwo — pMibi rv'xwnn 

Mme.' Ctnlioaota and Wg. OtaUmvL 

e. MaX-II pi I^ACtt— from lh« fropbtt MATEftUtU 

B«iuT BandcnoiL 


7. QcAvro Ajk«»— Drcm)— Dnng lij Adln* ud IhiltAKian, 

fron Kluir d'Anor* iHixiirrrr 

Kte Pattl and Kg. Cantlmni. 

[b Cimifl Ik,-*, /f^ v.'\ 
A. lUtAPLAfl— Tuubnir ttabU* Malibnti 

HiD9. Amalla ttrmluMoh. 

9. HoKAKiA— fro* ib« n«a (V», I'a Ri< 1'* In MMtbtn Vbm« 

■If. C«DtliiMrL 

10. SvCtaf'* Ml»br«l*d KrboHunji. . RrsaiT 

MlM Oarlotu PattL 

|«v rw« Jlw4, Hi, ■/] 

11. P«Ua dl Comart— •oMpoMil Md [Mrfttraw^ bj 

Brarr luidvnen. 

13. Dt-tTTO IttfVO Patim 

Mlai Pant and Km*. ttrakoMh. 




600. mtlS. 

Km. x; I. .nnd 

1 Ikt Ml.!* lltOT. 

.r w, u 


Oeon opra tt ■vrtn. Oonoart to 

oonninn at Bwht. 

«^Ma terlMU rMil 

rM hi. • 

lU li«t-l*»l..BAmu. 

W IMMr. kMIr l~«4 k> Ml. tkluMI. 

(library of congress) 

Figure 4. Playbill of first musical concert under Ford's 

f ®iPS iTHEiEiM 

_^_. ■ — ■■ ■ . ' i 



Id (jpoTiiDg a iir-t-cla^-- placi: <>!' imusempnt at this early period, but a few brie:' 
\ri-ok8 .sinop its construction wn"? dfsigDed, tin' rr.aua^cr ami proprietor trustfully wlicita 
Ibr- iodulgeQce of bis pntif^n* tnr :i fi'w days. Thp thousand and one accessories to ibu 
( Hect of performances ami tln^ comfort of tho audiences bave been anticipated as far a» 
po.'sible ; yet, of eoiirae, many have been overlooked. A brief time will make this place 
w\ near perfect as means and an earnest desire to please will permit. I'ntil then, tho 
kind forbearance of the puMie i^ anticipated. 

Kesp.^otfully, JNO. T. FOHD. 


m mwmmw if ifhi %m»M%m 

111 Ai.p.-aiaiH-,. L.llli' |-..|(l,i:, A.'rr,—.. MISS. 


• — — — — — -.—. — — — -.— „ ■..,. - ..I i- __yju — ; 

Thursday Evening, March 20th, 1862 


Will U- j.r.-Tlcl l!..-*)..!!,.! 




MF.NUI ST. AI.Mf;, [ . 
W1L1> Al'.AI! P.f)y > 


S'XIXJIM'OSBE.,l,al licauuiom -Mr.f. H.HARIIISO.N 

«ol. IV four.) Mr. T. II. K.MOHT 


. ..Mr. C 13. IJISllOP 

ilsjqr Didicr 
'i'linie l>:i\ftrdr. . . 

,M. T, A. J1,\I,I, 

Dfficds. . . .Mcjr,-. WILSON i DURAMJ 

MiuliiiiK' DolKMrz Mis!^ CROSS) 

Mail- Mi'i WARE 

K-idl.' Misj PATTERSON 

Clfiri. Mi<. BENNKTT 

Mojiaianierl . 
Ali Parl.H . . . 
Oia-*nim . . . . 


VIr, H Fl. I.liAK I 
.Mr. .1. li.MLEV 



Ill .Ml . U.' i.Mi .Mr. Clicl.r. 

Iiiii:i- -A,- K>.r,K:_. •,„ i.i|!i'HEST1;A wrll pcrlucm ii 




1 KADE): M, Ei:uE.\E FE.\ELO.\ 

ia Zingarella, 

m^ OUTia 

r , .».imI.i.I. Willi III.- S|miUiiijC„i,„.,li. Ill, ..(THE 


KATE, with Soukh Miss LUCILLE WB8TSBM 

•'■"'an Ml. 1 l: niSllOI' I Sir l.nvr.n.-. Mr, T. A. HALL 

1 liarlp I'liraanii Mr T, II. KMIOIIT | N..i.. Mr. C. D. BISHOP 


Ureos Circle &Pai'quotto 50ct8. I Balcony Seats 

Orchestra Chairs $1 1 Family Clrole.-, . >.. . 

HOX OKKICK o[ion from 1> to I oVlnek, wlion kaXh din bo .«WBml. 
DOORS OPEN at 7 o'clock. CURTAIN RIMiS, quartertT* 


88 OM. 

H. PouaBhim. riiattr. W|tU>|(«i, 

(library of congress) 
Figure 5. Program of second night of opening season, Ford's Atheneum. 


(photo by abbie rowe) 
Figure 6. Engineer probings in basement of Ford's Theatre showing (left) blue clay foundations of north wall, and 
(right) rock and concrete foundations of south wall. The latter may be the original foundations of the First Baptist Church. 

From its opening on March 19, 1862, Ford's 
venture achieved considerable success.^^ An 
analysis of the productions staged during the first 
season revealed that Ford chose excellent com- 
panies and first rate stars to grace the Washington 
Civil War theatre scene. ^'' Lincoln attended 
Ford's Theatre on May 28, 1862, for the first time, 
thus adding considerable prestige to the theatre's 
list of distinguished patrons.^* It was during the 
height of the second season, however, that tragedy 
struck Ford's Atheneum as if confirming the dire 
prediction made when Ford leased the church 

About five o'clock on the evening of December 
30, 1862, fire caused by a defective gas meter broke 
out in the cellar under the stage.^'* Fed by the 
combustible materials of the dressing rooms and 
stage scenei7, the holocaust raged well into the 
night, lighting the Washington skies. By morning 
only the blackened walls remained standing. The 
entire interior of the theatre was gutted.^" Ford's 
loss, which was only partially covered by fire in- 

" National Intelligencer, Washington Evening Star, 
March to December 1862, passim. 

" Ibid. 

"" Earl S. Miers (ed.), Lincoln Day by Day (A Chron- 
ology, 1809-1865), III (Washington: Lincoln Sesqui- 
centennial Commission, 1960), 116. See also figure 7 
of Hackett's earlier playbill. Original in Rare Book 
Division, L.C. 

'^National Intelligencer, Evening Star, December 31 

'■"Ibid., January 1-3, 1863. 

surance, was estimated at $20,000. In addition, 
the orchestral instruments, music and the cos- 
tumes for Balfe's operatic spectacle, Satanella, 
which had been scheduled for that night, were 
destroyed.'" Fortunately, there was no loss of life. 
Buildings to the north and south of the theatre 
were also damaged by the fire.^* Theatrical col- 
leagues oflFered to sponsor benefits to aid Ford and 
the Balfe Company to recoup their losses. Ford 
declined for himself, but accepted for the com- 
pany. Subsequently, a benefit was given at the 
New National by Grover's company and by various 
Washington theatrical artists.'" Despite his losses, 
Ford immediately went ahead with new plans to 
construct a larger and more magnificent theatre on 
the same site.*" Undoubtedly, the far-sighted war- 
time policy of the President served Ford's purpose 
as well since it appears that he had little trouble 
in obtaining the necessary building materials. It 
will be recalled that Lincoln said that the construc- 
tion of the Capitol must go on "to show the people 
of this Nation the continuing strength of the 
Union." " 

^National Intelligencer, December 30, 1862. 

''Alexandria (Va.) Ga2f«^, December 31, 1862. 

""National Intelligencer, January 3, 1863. 

'"Ibid., April 27, 1863. 

" Diary, Brevet Major General Montgomery C. Meigs, 
Chief of Construction, Corps of Engineers, War Depart- 
ment. Original in Meigs Papers, MSS Div., L.C. Chi- 
cago Daily Tribune, 1863-65, passim. 


Ford's Athenenin 

Tenth alrttt, between Eand f ttrettt. 


(AUo, or the Holud.r strxt Tholer.l "''■"■" *• ' «-'»*' 




Who will appear thi& ei-iming in iiit. world reouwoed character of 



Reached un Tuesday cvi-oing by a Crowded aoj Brilliant Auditontim, with 





THUHSDAir EV'NG, May 15th, 1862 



Wht-ruin tli') Immor'.al Bard haa L-ontrivL-d to i-ombinclhi- Uiglitht diti-raion with tUcmofctbalutary 
Uedpn, and ihown how a couple of merry, yet houcBt Hivoa, met the Impudent advamvi ol' a rain 
old coxcomb, and by an innocent and aportiro coquetry. mialM him to Iw nearly suff.vatt^l in a 
buckliaaket, well ducked in the> rivor, boundly thrashod in fomalv disgnt&o, and vVfutuAlly expoe«4 
to the laughter and ridicule of all ob&i)rvcrfc. 
SIB JOHN FALSTAFF, a Fat Knight, prL-teading lovo t« the M«rjry Wivo6...Mr. HACKETT 

Francis Ford, the jealous husband John'tfcCnUongh 

Gforgc Pact', liic secure husband J. A. Ilcroc 

Abraham Slander, a fuoliih country U'|uirr, in lovt- with Anne I'ngt-. . , , . <_'. U. Harrison 

DtK-ior C'aiu^, a French phj^iciun U". II. Ltair 

yir Huph Evani', a W't-lih prici-i, I'uratu and icliouhiiiisltT at ^\'llll!;■vr W. I'arUtr 

HobiTt Shailo A, Esq., a country Ju-lici' M. Latitngau 

Mkstcr I'tnton, u jounggiiitkmtn of small rortuiicyn tovc with Aiim'Pu;;i', Mr^.!\.C.I''orr^slc^ 

Ht>* t>f the Uarler, a inTrv talkiu^: iVIlow N. C. ruricster 

Bardolph ) i J.W.Carroll 

Njm > ShiirptT-.. mi-udui^' K-iI-tiitV \ W^ora^^ Bcck> 

Pistol S ? J.N.Taylor 

Joliii f* mple, ;-ervaiil to Sl»'tidi.-T . . -J. Williaiut 

Juli.T Hi'ift'y, jffvaut to Doctor (.'aiu? J. Daily 

Hobcri l\ n. t-JjlLiShiT 

Ucliii, pagfr !o I-'nhtdll ... Mi ^ Kaiit Parki-r 

Mrs. Pa'T I TliC ^ Mis- Aimi. ll'jjgv^ 

Mf:^. I.-,,^j ,, \ M*fr/ \\\\K > Mis» AnuK- Oruhom 

Anut Pii^r. baUL'httr to P»ge. in lo\e wiili Kentun Mi^* Liui la Andtt.'un 

L>antc Uuichly, FlouMjkctper to Doctor Caiu^ -Mr.-. J. K. Viuceoi 

Ita Bebatrsai— Maekiin'sCBrebrated Comedy of The Man of the World 



Dwrl OpcD >t quarur 7 o'clucli. C'utiiiin llisi-. MSuVluek 

,1 i'.-".r,l. .: •■ 

(library of congress) 
Figure 7. Program of Lincoln's favorite Shakespearean actor. 


PART II— Ford's Theatre, 1863-65 


John T. Ford's plans for a new theatre called for 
the construction of a more elaborate edifice than 
the fonner converted church building which had 
been destroyed by fire. Ford's builder, James J. 
GifTord/ who drew up the original plans for the 
present structure, also designed and supervised its 
construction. The work was started in February 
1863 and the theatre, known as "Ford's New 
Theatre," ^ was opened to the public on Thursday, 
August 27, 1863, with Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Bishop, 
playing the leading roles in a "brilliant" perform- 
ance of The Naiad Queen? 

As Giflford's original plans have been the subject 
of a never-ending search, especially during the 
past twenty years, without success, a few words on 
the significance of the present study may be ap- 
propriate. It was generally believed that Giflford's 
original "drawings," i.e. plans, "if such ever ex- 
isted," ■* may have disappeared in the hectic his- 
tory of Ford's Theatre following the assassination 
of President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. 
Consequently, the histoiy of Ford's Theatre had 
become surrounded with an almost impenetrable 
aura of rumor, hearsay and fiction. The failure 
to discover the original architectural drawings 
of the theatre naturally did little to dispel the un- 
reality of the situation, especially when plans to 
restore or partially restore the theatre were con- 
templated by the Congress in 1954. Pursuant to 
Public Law 372 of the 83d Congress, a study of 
the Ford Theatre had been made by the National 
Park Service and submitted to Congress in July 
1955.'' Due to the renewed interest in the possible 

' See Figure 8. 

'See Figure 12. 

^National Intelligencer, August 28, 1863. See also 
Appendix "B" for a complete "List of Productions at 
Ford's Theatre, August 1863 to April 1865." Ruby 
Overman and Stephen Fenster compiled part of this 

' Stanley W. McClure, Historical and Architectural 
Features Significant in the Restoration or Partial Res- 
toration of Ford's Theatre (Washington: U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior, N.P.S.,N.C. P., 1956), p. 2. 

" See "Notes on the Reconstruction of Ford's Theatre, 
prepared by the Architectural Branch, N.C.P., for use in 

full restoration of Ford's Theatre as part of the 
MISSION 66 program of the National Park Serv- 
ice," and also as one of the outstanding features of 
the Civil War Centennial celebration, funds were 
appropriated under Public Law 86-455 of the 
86th Congress to carry out "preliminary architec- 
tural and historical research, the preparation of 
construction drawings and for exhibit planning." ' 
As a result of this congressional action, the cur- 
rent project was begun in September 1960. The 
present Historic Structures Report represents, 
therefore, the results of these investigations. 

One of the primary objectives of the current 
project has been to find the original plans used 
in constructing Ford's Theatre in 1863. Another 
objective has been to dispel the aura of unreality 
surrounding the multi-faceted aspects of the 
theatre's history and its architecture. As a result 
current investigations have led to the examination 
and evaluation of practically all known and re- 
lated records of civilian and military agencies of 
the government which may have been connected 
with the history of the Ford Theatre building in 
one form or another since the tragic events of 
Good Friday, 1865.- In addition contemporary 

the report to be provided by the Congress as required by 
P.L. 372, 83d Congress," July 1955. Statement of Sen- 
ator Milton R. Young of North Dakota at the Hearings 
before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, U.S. Senate, 86th Congr., 2d Sess., on H.R. 10401 
("Making Appropriations for the Department of the 
Interior and Related Agencies for the Fiscal Year Ending 
June 30, 1961, and for Other Purposes"). (Washing- 
ton: U.S.G.P.O., 1960), p. 990. 

"Statement of Conrad L. Wirth, Director, National 
Park Service, Ibid., p. 723. 

' Recommendation of Senator Carl Hayden of Ari- 
zona, Chairman, Subcommittee of the Committee on 
.Appropriations, Ibid., p. 1065. Act approved May 13, 
I960, 74Stat., 104. 

^ Among the more important official records examined 
at the National Archives are the following: Record 
Group 42, Records of the Office of Public Buildings and 
Public Parks of the National Capitol; R.G. 46, Records 
of the United States Senate; R.G. 48, General Records 
of the Department of the Treasury; R.G. 66, Records of 
the Commission of Fine Arts; R.G. 77, Records of the 
Office of the Chief of Engineers, War Department; 
R.G. 79, Records of the National Park Service, Depart- 




Figures. Personalities of Ford's Theatre: (Upper left) Harry Clay Ford, c. 1865; (upper right) James J. Gifford and 
son, Robert, aged 6, c. 1864; (lower left) John Wilkes Booth, c. 1865; (lower right) Jennie Gourlay, one of Booth's 
favorite girl friends, c. 1865. 


Figure 9. Mr. and Mrs. Harry Clay Ford, c. 1870. 


drawings, sketches, eye-witness descriptions, 
photographs, and plans and specifications for 
later work on the theatre have been carefully 
evaluated. New light has been placed on the 
original depositions and statements of employees 
of Ford's Theatre made shortly after the assassina- 
tion. Current literature on the subject has veri- 
fied some earlier assumptions. Living descendants 
of persons, who had been associated with Ford's 
Theatre in one capacity or another, have been 
interviewed and disclosed new facts regarding the 

ment of the Interior; R.G. 92, Records of the Office of 
the Quartermaster General, War Department; R.G. 94, 
Records of The Adjutant General's Office, War Depart- 
ment; R.G. 107, Records of the Office of the Secretary 
of War, War Department; R.G. 110, Records of the 
Provost Marshal General's Bureau, 1863-1866, War 
Department; R.G. 128, Records of Joint Committees of 
Congress; R.G. 129, Records of the Bureau of Prisons; 
R.G. 137, Records of the Procurement Division (Treas- 
ury) ; R.G. 153, Records of the Office of the Judge 
Advocate General (War), especially files of the Lincoln 
Assassination Suspects; and R.G. 217, Records of the 
General Accounting Office. 

theatre. Thus it has been possible to definitely 
establish many of the original architectural fea- 
tures of the theatre and its early history. 

Under these circumstances, the loss or disap- 
pearance of the original plans of the theatre is not 
as significant as would appear at first glance. The 
resulting information is sufficient from both the 
historical and architectural viewpoints to enable 
the Architectural Branch of National Capital 
Parks to approximate within very close limits the 
basic design, plan and appearance of the original 
structure.^ Ample footnotes throughout this 
study will make verification of all dimensions, 
changes in structure, and other pertinent details 
easily corroboratable. Basically, Ford's plans in- 

" Statements of William M. Haussman, Chief Archi- 
tect, and Wm. A. Dennin, Supervisory Architect, 
Architectural Branch, N.C.P. to Olszewski October 12, 
1960, and March 15, 1961. In January 1962 N.C.P. 
was reorganized and its title changed to "Region Six, 
N.P.S." It is now known as "National Capital Re- 
gion" (N.C.R.). 

688-440 0—63- 


'^nxvt^vx^ (Blikt, 


(OJM 5 y _..fs€^ . 

8 HQIUia^ XJHfiTJfY, r//a< I have W«.<yfff-<7 ^. j mniLul for 





as per plat in ihis Office, and th« annexed Diagram^ 




. v\ y 



r- -i 


■V> O iV, VA/VCA-SL^ 


^/>,u^c/^ ^^ 

Surveyor of 

Figure io. District Surveyor's Plat, May 5, 1866. 




eluded the construction of a larger and more im- 
posing structure than the one destroyed for he had 
taken steps to procure adjacent land. 

Acquisition of the Site 

The original lease for Lot 10 was signed on 
December 12, 1861, by John T. Ford and David 
W. Heath, representing the Board of Trustees of 
the First Baptist Church.'" As he desired to en- 
large the theatre to the north, Ford, on February 
25, 1863, purchased by deed a part of Lot 11 with 
its improvements from Robert D. Clokey." To 
the south. Ford had, on February 1, 1963, leased 
a part of the north section of Lot 9 with its im- 
provements Irom William H. Phillips for 99 years." 

With the completion of these land acquisitions, 
the site of Ford's New Theatre and its north wing 
and south addition is described in the official 
Libers of the District Recorder of Deeds as fol- 
lows : Beginning from a point at the SW comer of 
the south addition (Lot 9), thence N 95.50' to 
the NW corner; thence E 57.10', N 14.2', E 27.2', 
N 9.0', E 22.2', to the NE corner of the north wing; 
thence S 76.0' to the SE comer; thence W 22.2', 
S 20.0', W 23.11', S 22.8', W 61.1' to the point 
of beginning." The overall interior dimensions 
of the theatre were approximately 67.0 feet N to S 
and 103.5 feet E to W." 

Financing of the Project 

Ford took several steps in an effort to raise 
adequate funds to promote the theatre project. 
The most important of these was his attempt to 
obtain a congressional charter for the incorpora- 
tion of the Washington Theatre Company, loans 
on the land and the sale of stock certificates. 

The Washington Theatre Company 

Sympathy for Ford's loss of his Atheneum was 
demonstrated by a benefit performance at Grover's 

'" See original documents in "Chain of Title Papers 
to Ford's Theatre Building," Item B-4, in L.M.C., re- 
ferred to hereafter as Title Papers, L.M.C., with ap- 
propriate document number. See also Land Records, 
Liber J.A.S.-215, Office, Recorder of Deeds, D.C., 
folio 347. 

11 Ibid., Liber N.C.T.-l, folio 485. 

1= Ibid., folio 479. 

"Ibid., and see Survey Plat, Figure 10. 

" Title Papers, L.M.C., Item C-7 and A-9. 

Theatre and by favorable newspaper articles on 
his business ethics." Ford was thus able to obtain 
the backing of some of the most influential busi- 
nessmen of Washington in his endeavor to secure 
a congressional charter for the incorporation of a 
group to be known as the "Washington Theatre 
Company" which proposed to build a new theatre. 
In addition to John T. Ford, the group included 
Richard Wallach, Mayor of Washington ; George 
W. Riggs, President of Riggs National Bank; and 
James C. McGuire, Joseph F. Brown, A. R. Potts, 
Franklin Tenney and Thomas Berry. Capital 
stock of the corporation was not to exceed 

For this purpose a bill entitled H.R. 684, "An 
Act to Incorporate the Washington Theatre Com- 
pany" was introduced in the House of Representa- 
tives by Congressman Russell B. Train of 
Massachusetts on January 19, 1863, 37th Con- 
gress, 3d Session. The bill was referred to the 
Committee for the District of Columbia." On 
January 23, the bill was unanimously reported 
from committee with two minor amendments by 
Congressman Charles B. Calvert of Maryland, 
but was returned to committee because of the 
objection of Mr. Wm. Kellogg of lUinois.^^ On 
Febmary 8 action was taken on the bill and, 
despite several attempts to postpone its considera- 
tion, the Speaker brought the bill up for a vote. 
It passed the House by a vote of 63 to 59. In dis- 
cussing the bill's merits on the floor of the House, 
Mr. Calvert stated : 

The sole object of this bill ... is to enable 
a company to put up a decent place of this 
description in this city. Without such a charter 
no individual is willing to incur such expense; 
but with a charter as this, I understand that 
the gentleman who was so fortunate [sic] as 
to lose his property by the burning of the 
theatre on Tenth Street, can get a company 

"'National Intelligencer, Evening Star, December 31, 
1862 to January 3, 1863. 

"■ See Figure 1 1. Original bill in Records of the U.S. 
House of Representatives, R.G. 233, N.A., and Records 
of the U.S. Senate, R.G. 46, N.A. See also Journal of 
Enrolled Bills, House of Representatives, 37th Congr., 
3d Sess., H.R. 684, R.G. 233, N.A. Congressional Globe, 
37th Congr., 3d Sess., 34, pt. 1, passim. 

" H.R. 684, op. cit. 

" Congressional Globe, op. cit., p. 381. 




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Figure i i. Original enrolled bill, HR 684, "An Act To Incorporate the Washington Theatre Company.' 


willing to subscribe a sufficient amount to put 
up such an edifice worthy of this capital.'" 
On February 4, the bill was sent to the Senate 
for concurrence.^" The next day it was referred 
to the Senate Committee on the District of 
Columbia "^ and on February 6 was reported out 
of Committee without amendments by Senator 
James W. Grimes of Iowa, the Committee Chair- 
man.-- On February 9, final consideration was 
given to the bill on the floor of the Senate. Sena- 
tor James Harlan of Iowa said he saw no reason 
for the incorporation of such a company through 
legislative enactment because anyone could build 
a theatre "under the laws that are now in force 
in the District of Columbia without any special 
law." -^ Subsequently the bill died on the floor 
of the Senate as the 37th Congress ended and no 
further action was taken on the measure.-* 
Despite the failure of the bill to pass the Senate, 
Ford went ahead with the construction of his new 
theatre, financing the venture by borrowing and 
through the sale of stock certificates. 

Loans on the Property 

On the same day that he had purchased a part 
of Lot 11 (February 25, 1863), Ford executed a 
deed of trust on the property to Bushrod W. Reed, 
in return for a loan to help finance the new struc- 
ture." In addition to paying $5,000 cash, Ford 
also executed five notes of $1,000 each with vary- 
ing maturity dates to members of the Board of 
Trustees of the First Baptist Church, purchasing 
the property in February 1863 to insure its control 
by him.^*' During the construction of the theatre. 
Ford, on May 27, 1863, executed a deed of trust 
for a loan on the land in favor of Walter S. Cox.=' 

Sale of stock certificates 
In April 1863, Ford began soliciting subscribers 

^° Congressional Globe, op. cit., p. 697. Evening Star, 
February 4, 1863. 

" Congressional Globe, op. cit., p. 703. 

•^ Ibid., p. 726. 

■^ Ibid., p. 750. 

"" Ibid. ,Pt. 3, p. 818. 

-* Statement, Clerk of Senate Committee for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia to Olszewski, March 1 , 1961. 

* Title Papers, L.M.C., Item C-8. 

^ The cancelled notes now form part of Title Papers, 
L.M.C., Item9. 

" Land Records, op. cit.. Liber N.C.T.-2, folio 435. 

to purchase in $500 lots, shares of stock which 
he issued on the theatre.-' The building cost was 
estimated at the time at $75,000.^'* George W. 
Small, one of the proprietors of the Holliday Street 
Theatre, Baltimore, wrote a letter of recommenda- 
tion about this time, attesting to Ford's manage- 
ment of the Baltimore theatre and to his business 
acumen in meeting his obligations promptly dur- 
ing the past eight years of their association.^" 
Undoubtedly, this testimonial aided Ford to raise 
the necessary funds. 

The stock certificates were titled: "FORD'S 
OF AN ACADEMY OF MUSIC." Capacity was 
stated to be 2,500 persons. The $500 which each 
certificate represents was payable "at any time 
within ten years from date. Interest was payable 
annually." ^' Subscribers were entitled to free 
admission to all dramatic performances to be 
given in the theatre until payment of the debt 
and interest.^^ Among the names of the original 
subscribers which appeared on the stock certificates 
were Maggie Mitchell, one of the leading come- 
dians of the period; John F. Coyle, editor of the 
National Intelligencer; and Henry Polkinhorn, 
printer of Ford's Washington playbills. ^^ As some 
of the certificates were re-dated August 1863, Sol- 
lers believes that Ford may have sold more stock, 
when the theatre was nearing completion, to meet 
additional construction costs.'* 


As pointed out earlier, since the original plans 
for Ford's Theatre appear to be nonexistent, the 
narrative and conclusions of this study are based 
upon the most recent and exhaustive research 
already mentioned plus personal observations, 
numerous probings and examinations of the exist- 
ing structure; the opinions, reports and profes- 
sional observations of architects associated with 

' Sollers, op. cit., p. 6. 

' National Intelligencer, April 27, 1863. 

' Sollers, op. cit. 

' Ibid. 

' Ibid. 

' Ibid. 

'I bid., p. 7. 


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Figure 12 

(maryI-and htstorical society) 

its restoration; and the observations and candid 
opinions expressed in personal interviews with 
practicing architects, engineers, construction 
workers, and building material suppliers. Fur- 
thermore, a comparative study of newspaper 
accounts of the period ; of photographs by Mathew 
B. Brady and/or his assistants; of official specifi- 
cations, plans, drawings and reports of the Corps 
of Engineers, Quartermaster General, and the 
Architect of the U.S. Capitol, plus their corre- 
spondence on the subject, lead to certain valid 
assumptions and conclusions. Of primary sig- 
nificance are the levels and transit lines established 
in the structural analysis report and set of engi- 
neering drawings prepared under contract for 
National Capital Parks by Bernard F. Locraft, 
Civil Engineer, in August 1955.^= 

^ See report prepared under contract between N.C.P. 
and Bernard F. Locraft, Civil Engineer, entitled, 
"Structural Analysis and Report of the Ford's Theatre 
Building (Lincoln Museum)," with accompanying illus- 
trations, Architect's Office, N.C.P., D.I., file No. N.C.P. 
85.11-55, Nos. 1-14, cited hereafter as Locraft Plans 
with appropriate drawing number. 

From contemporary accounts, lithographed 
drawings and photographs, it is apparent that 
GifFord probably relied to a great extent upon the 
design of the fagade of the Holliday Street 
Theatre in Baltimore, when he constructed Ford's 
Theatre in Washington.^'' According to the Brady 
photographs taken on April 15-16, 1865, imme- 
diately following the assassination, the structure, i 
despite the laudatory comments of current news- ' 
paper accounts, was still unfinished when the 
theatre was opened for its initial performance 
on August 27, 1863.^' An apparent bow appears 
on the Tenth Street pilastered fagade and a later 
examination by engineers of the War Department 
revealed the fact that the wall was out of plumb. 
The wooden lookouts that would normally pro- 
vide support and fastening for the cornice and I 
pediment upon completion are shown exposed.^' 

""See Figures 12 and 27. 

''See Figures 14 and 22 (note mourning drapes), the 
latter from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, May 
20, 1865; and Figure 23. Note particularly incomplete 
cornice and pediment. Locraft, op. cit. 

^ Ibid. 


As of April 1865 the lookouts had not received the 
wooden millwork to complete the theatre's original 

Laying of the Cornerstone 

The cornerstone for Ford's Theatre was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies on February 28, 1863, 
by James J. Gifford at the southwest corner of 
the building. Eugene Fenelon, orchestra leader 
of the former Ford's Atheneum, assisted in the 
ceremonies with other members of the Ford 
Theatre group." It was anticipated that the 
structure would be completed in 75 days. The 
exterior measurements of the theatre were given 
as "72 feet in width by 1 10 feet in depth." " The 
Baltimore Sun reported that "in order to secure 
this amount of space the adjacent buildings have 
been purchased and will be removed." Un- 
doubtedly, since the former theatre was com- 
pletely gutted,*- the entire site was cleared of the 
rubble of the fire. Adjacent buildings to the 
north and south, on parts of Lots 11 and 9 ac- 
quired by Ford, were demolished to make room 
for the larger theatre. The present north or 
dressing room wing was undoubtedly preserved 
and remodeled to fit in with the theatrical struc- 
ture.*' Although no outward evidence exists of 
the location of the cornerstone, it is believed that 
the removal of the parging on the southwest corner 
of the present building, would reveal its 


Gifford ran into immediate difficulties with the 
foundations. Quicksand was encountered and 
the resulting cave-ins delayed work on the struc- 

* See "Notes on Reconstruction of Ford's Theatre," 
op. cit., p. 4. 

"Baltimore Sun, Baltimore Daily Gazette, March 2, 

" Ibid. 

" Ibid. 

"National Intelligencer, Evening Star, and Alex- 
andria (Va.) GazeUe, December 31, 1862. 

"Note: From all evidence it is believed that the cor- 
nerstone of Ford's Theatre is located at the SW corner 
of the building. It is also believed that a copy of the 
original plans drawn by James J. Gifford may have been 
deposited therein. Removal of the parging by prelimi- 
nary architectural exploration should at least substantiate 

ture for almost three weeks before the foundation 
walls could rest on solid bearing. The walls 
were finally built on blue clay.*^ Further delays 
were apparently caused by war-time supply 

Exterior of Ford's Theatre 

Despite some exterior architectural changes and 
the diverse history of Ford's Theatre, some of the 
architectural features as they existed on April 14, 
1865, still remain. Among the most important of 
these are the north and south walls, the west or 
Tenth Street fagade with its two original case- 
ment windows in the south bay of the wall, the 
pilasters, and the five arched doorways.*" Wooden 
roof trusses still occupy their original location.*'* 
In 1894 the east wall was rebuilt.** Thus, pre- 

or obviate this observation. The most significant exist- 
ing evidence appears to be in Figure 23, a photograph of 
the west facade of Ford's Theatre April 15-17, 1865, 
showing the SW corner. Practically all subsequent 
photos are either blurred or persons are standing in 
front of this corner. 

Since the foregoing was written, new evidence has 
come to light. Cf. Figures 13 and 39. George D. Ford 
believes that the original cornerstone laid by his uncle, 
John T. Ford, "who undoubtedly participated in the 
ceremonies, may contain a copy of the original plans of 
Ford's Theatre for it was customary to deposit such 
material in theatre cornerstones of the period." G. D. 
Ford to Olszevyski, Lambs Club, New York, April 8, 

" "Ex-Manager Ford's Story," Washington Post, June 
11, 1893. See Figures 6 and 13. 

"National Intelligencer, April 27, 1863. SoUers, op. 
cit., p. 7. 

"See Figure 18. 
"'See Figure 15. 

" "Report on Ford's Old Theatre Building," by Addtl. 
2nd Lt. John S. Sewell, C.E., to Colonel John M. Wilson, 
C.E., in charge of Public Buildings and Grounds, Wash- 
ington, July 25, 1894, pp. 19-20. This report and an 
earlier one. Ibid., dated December 30, 1893, give an 
extremely valuable and comprehensive official survey of 
the architectural changes made and the condition of 
Ford's Theatre from the viewpoint of the Corps of 
Engineers, War Department. In addition, it reports 
all work done on the building following the partial col- 
lapse of a section of the interior on June 9, 1893. 
Original reports in R.G. 42, N.A. The latter report will 
be referred to as "Sewell Report No. 1," the former, as 
"Sewell Report No. 2." 




Figure 13. Architectural exploration for original corner- 
stone of Ford's Theatre, August 22, 1961, by Architect 
Dennin and Historian Olszewski. 

liminary architectural exploration conducted by 
the Architectural Branch, National Capital 
Parks/' has confirmed some of the earlier historical 
findings. '"' No evidence has been uncovered of 
the source, type and cost of materials and labor 
used in the original structure.'*' For the purpose 
of the present report, the historical findings wall 
be treated first. 

North wall 

The lower portion of the north vidW, -which was 
later subject to considerable structural correction, 
originally extended about three feet below side- 
walk level.^' It was 18 inches thick from founda- 
tion to eaves, approximately 50 feet in height and 
about 108 feet in length from west to east.^' To 
provide access from the stage to the greenroom, 
which was in the four-story north wing, a doorway, 
about three feet in width and framework was in- 
stalled about 16.41 feet from the inner face of the 
wall.^^ The north wall of the theatre was the south 
wall of the north wing. Another door was in- 
stalled at the fourth floor level of the building to 
provide access to the fly galleries and paint bridge 
in the theatre.'*^ 

" Now National Capital Region, N.P.S. 

^ Statement of Dennin to Olszewski, April 14, 1961. 

"See Figure 14. 

"■ See "Report of Lt. Col. Thomas Lincoln Casey, 
C.E., on work performed and cost of strengthening 
north wall of Ford's Theatre, October 1878," p. 2. 

'^ "Sewell Report No. 1," p. 1 1. 

" See Figure 37 "Plan of Stage of Ford's Theatre," 
prepared by Lt. Simon P. Currier for Colonel Ingraham, 
Provost Marshall, General Defences North of Potomac, 
dated Washington, April 24th, 1865. This report and 
diagram were used as evidence during the trial of the 
conspirators in 1865 and the John H. Suratt trial in 
1867. Original in N.A. 

" To substantiate the pertinent findings and conclu- 
sions of this study, the original depositions and state- 
ments made by members of the staff of Ford's Theatre 
shortly after the assassination were collated and evalu- 
ated. Some of the more significant of these are: John 
T. Ford (owner), H. Clay Ford (treasurer), James R. 
Ford (business manager), James J. Gifford (architect 
and chief carpenter), James L. Maddox (property man), 
Louis J. Garland (costumer), James Lamb (scenery 
painter), Joe Simms (fly boy) and John Miles (fly 
boy), April 1865. Original records in R.G. 153, N.A., 
J.A.O., L.A.S. file. These materials shed new light upon 
the published versions of the official trial proceedings and 


Figure 14. Ford's Theatre from F Street, April 1865. 


West wall. 

The west facade of the structure closely re- 
sembled that of the Holliday Street Theatre in 
Baltimore.'^" At the street level were five arched 

in some cases furnished completely new evidence re- 
garding the original appearance of Ford's Theatre as 
of the night of April 14, 1865. Cf. T. B. Peterson & 
Brothers (eds.). The Trial of the Assassins and Con- 
spirators (Philadelphia, 1865) ; Benn Pitman (comp.), 
The Assassination of President Lincoln and the Trial of 
the Conspirators (New York: Moore, Wilstach & Bald- 
win, 1865); Ben Parley Poore (ed.). The Conspiracy 
Trial for the Murder of the President, 3 vols. (Boston: 
J. E. Tilton and Co., 1865-1866); and Trial of John 
H. Surratt in the Criminal Court for the District of 
Columbia, 2 vols. (Washington: G.P.O., 1867), passim. 
Peterson's is the complete and unabridged edition of the 
trial proceedings; Pitman, the officially expurgated ac- 
count. The final volumes are cited hereafter as Surratt 

"See Figure 12. 

doorways. Above the doorways, between six pil- 
asters, were two rows of five casement windows 
each surmounted by limestone lintels, providing 
light and air for the lobbies of the dress and family 
circles. ^^ According to the original design, the 
facade was to have been adorned with an 
elaborate cornice and pediment and surmounted 
with three groups of statuary.^' The cornice and 
pediment, however, remained unfinished until 
1865, the cornice and pediment lookouts continu- 
ing to jut out like sawteeth during the compara- 
tively short life of the theatre.^" The groups of 
statuai7 never graced the structure. '^'' 

"Cf. Figures 22, 23 and 39. 
™ See Figure 12. 
"AT. 57. 

""See Figures 27 and 29. Lithograph by Schroeder 
and Landers, Baltimore, 1863. 


(photo by ABBIE ROWE) 

Figure 15. Original wooden roof trusses stiil in use, Ford's Theatre, Augiast 1963. 


Figure i6. Original wooden lookouts, interior view, Ford's Theatre, August 1963. 

(photo by abbie rowe) 

The west fagade is approximately 72 feet from 
foundations to ridge of the roof and 71 feet north 
to south. These overall dimensions were un- 
changed by later modifications of the structure.^' 
One source of contemporary evidence, citing the 
original width of the foundation of the west wall, 
is the article in the National Intelligencer, April 
27, 1863, reporting on the progress of the con- 
struction. Since John F. Coyle, this newspaper's 
editor, was one of the original subscribers to Ford's 
$500 stock certificates, it may be presumed that 
he had access to firsthand information regarding 
the progress and manner of the theatre's construc- 
tion. The article states that the wall was 32 
inches thick. One other reliable figure on the 
actual thickness of the west wall is given by Addi- 
tional 2d Lieutenant John S. Sewell, Corps of En- 
gineers, in his report on the condition of the 
building, following the collapse of June 9, 1893, 

and prior to the repair and renovation of the 
structure under his supervision. Sewell reports: 
The west (front) wall of the building bulges 
in, being about 6" out of plumb at the centre, 
but it is braced against the floor beams, and its 
thickness is so great, the bulge does not affect 
its stability. The outer face of the wall is plumb, 
a new vertical wall having been built outside of 
the old bulging one, when the building was re- 
modelled. The two walls are tied together by 
iron anchors. The front wall is 3'3" thick at 
the foundations ; at the level of the second floor, 
it diminishes to about 2'8" (depending on the 
bulge) and increases in thickness with the bulge, 
to a point about at the top of the third story. 
From there up it is two feet thick. "^ 
Despite contemporary descriptions of the building 
as being "a substantial brick structure of imposing 

•" Locraft Plans, Sheet No. 12. 

' "Sewell Report No. 1," p. 11. 


architectural proportions," ^ reference to the 1 865 
Brady photograph shows the structure as being 
unfinished, of rather poor brickwork with an ob- 
servable bow in the Tenth Street facade and an 
unfinished cornice and pediment.^* 

The five arched openings on the first floor level 
were approximately 6 feet in width by 12 feet in 
height and varied from 2 feet to 2.5 feet in depth. 
During the lifetime of the theatre, they were used 

' Baltimore Sun, August 25, 1863. 
' "Reconstruction Notes," p. 4. 

as doorways. Four of these doorways opened into 
the lobby and gave access to the north ticket win- 
dow, the orchestra and dress circle."^ The fifth 
door, known as the "gallery door" at the south 
end of the fagade,"" provided access to the 
gallery ticket window and stairwell leading to the 
family circle. On the front wall, south of the 
gallery door and about 8 feet above the sidewalk, 
hung a 3-foot white oval sign with black lettering 
reading "Entrance Family Circle 250." '^'' Two 
of the original casement windows are still in place 
in the south bay of the west facade and open on the 
stairway leading to the second and third floors of 
the present building. ''* The trim, in addition to 
the brickwork of the first floor, was painted white, 
the rest of the theatre wall being left natural red 

South Wall 

The south wall of the theatre is 18 inches thick 
throughout, approximating the dimensions of the 
north wall."^ From foundations to eaves the south 
wall is approximately 50 feet in height. It runs 
east from a point at the intersection of Lots 9 and 
10 at Tenth Street for 85 feet, then north 3 feet, 
and east 22 feet 2 inches joining the rear wall of 
the theatre.'" In constructing the south wall. 
Ford left an area of but 5 feet 6 inches by 22 feet 
of the original 20 x 30 foot public alleyway a't 
the southeast corner of the theatre.'^ 

GifFord undoubtedly encroached on both the 
public alleyway to the rear of the theatre and on 
part of Lot 9 when he constructed a 4-foot covered 

(photo by GEORGE OLES) 

Figure i 7. Old Ford's Theatre Building from F Street, 
July 4, 1 96 1. 

" See Figures 22, 23 and 39. 

"" Statement of H. Clay Ford, April 20, 1865, p. 2, 
L.A.S. file. 

" See Figures 39 and 48. Note especially removal of 
center ventilator hood from roof, Family Circle sign 
and debris showing on sidewalk. 

"* Figures 18, 48 and 54. Note: See the Historic 
American Buildings Survey (H.A.B.S.) drawings of 
the ARCHITECTURAL DATA, "Notes for the Restora- 
tion of Ford's Theatre," infra, indicating all historical- 
architectural information available on the appearance of 
Ford's Theatre as of April 14, 1865. Since the Super- 
visory Architect, Region Six, N.P.S., gives a detailed 
analysis of these drawings, they will not be referred to 
in the historical section. 

"' Cf. Figures 14 and 23. 

" "Sewell Report No. l,"p. 11. 

™ Locraft Plans, Sheet No. 2. 

'^ Ibid. 


(photo by abbie rowe) 

Figure i8. West fagade of Old Ford's Theatre Building showing original casement windows in south bay, August 2, 1963. 

passageway from Tenth Street through the south 
addition and beyond the 61 foot 8 inch property 
line to a point about 77 feet from Tenth Street.'^ 
This passageway gave access (by way of a 3-foot 
wide door through the south wall) into the theatre 
at a point just behind the boxes on the south side 
of the stage." 

" Interviews, Joseph L. Mudd, Supervisor, Records 
and Information, O.S., D.C.; Marvin E. Baxter, Chief, 
Department of Highways and Traffic, D.C. ; and Ed- 
mund Henderer, Chief District Engineer, Government 
of the DC, District Building, to Olszewski, May 18, 

" Locrajt Plans, op. cit. Testimony of J. L. Debonay, 
"responsible utility" of Ford's Theatre, Pitman, op. cit., 
p. 106. 

In 1863 a door was also installed at about 
the level of the family circle to provide access 
from the theatre to the rooms of Harry and 
Dick Ford on the third floor of the south addi- 
tion." The location of this door is clearly shown 
in a 1930 photograph taken during the demo- 
lition of the south addition. Excavations were 
made at this time in preparation for the con- 
struction of the office building of the Potomac 

~* National Intelligencer, February 21, 1865. George 
D. Ford, These Were Actors (New York: Library Pub- 
lishers, 1955), pp. 306-307. Phone interview, George 
D. Ford to Olszewski, October 24, 1960. See Figure 20 
showing location of former doors, stairway and floor 
joists of the south addition demolished in 1930. 


(photos by GEORGE OLES) 

Figure 19. Architectural exploration of interior Ford's Theatre Building, March 15, 1961; (Upper left) NE corner of 
basement showing location of former steps down which Booth passed; (upper right) Bricked-in stage door leading 
to Tenth Street and Star Saloon; (lower left) Inside face of west wall; (lower right) Bricked-in doorway to third 
floor rooms of south addition. 

Electric Power Company (PEPCO) on the corner 
of Tenth and E Streets, Northwest. This excava- 
tion extended north as far as the south wall of 
Ford's Theatre making it necessary to shore it 
up. The excavation revealed the deplorable 
condition of the construction of the original 
foundations in 1863 by GifTord. Patrick O'Keefe, 
Captain of the Guard for the Ford Theatre build- 
ing, reported the information that had been given 
to one of his guards by an engineer of the Hyman 

Construction Company, contractors for the 
PEPCO Building. O'Keefe's report states: 

They informed Guard O. D. Dillon that at 
the bottom of the south wall the foundation is 
very bad. 

In describing this foundation the engineers 
informed Guard Dillon that there is no uni- 
formity at the bottom of the wall, but instead 
it is . . . part cement and part brick and in some 
places a mixture of cement and brick. 


Figure 20. (Upper) South wall showing scars of former Star Saloon building and bricked-in doorway to lounge. (Lower) 
Base of south wall during excavation in 1930 for PEPCO building. 


Figure 21. Contemporary sketch of east or rear wall by A. Berghaus, showing small door 

through which Booth escaped. 

Some places the foundation does not extend 
twenty feet below the surface and any old thing 
was put in to fill it up.'^ 

East wall 

The east wall, with the exception of the 3-foot 
cutback in the alleyway at the southeast corner, 
was approximately the same width and height as 
the west wall, i.e., 67 feet 6 inches north to south 
and about 78 feet 6 inches from foundations to 
the ridge of the roofJ" However, the east wall 
was connected with the rear wall of the north 
wing giving it a total overall width of 90 feet. The 
east wall was originally about 18 inches thick up 

'^ Report of Patrick O'Keefe, Captain of the Guard, 
Mall Group, Public Buildings and Grounds, to Inspector 
of the Guard, Subject: "Foundation of Old Ford's 
Theatre Building," dated Washington, April 23, 1930. 
Original in file N.C.P. 1100/343 Lincoln Museum (1). 
See Figures 6 and 20. 

'" Locraft Plans, Sheet No. 9 ; "Sewell Report No. 1 ," 
p. 12, 

to the third floor after which it diminished to 14 
inches, then to 9 inches." Toward the north end 
of the wall on the first floor of the theatre proper, 
a small stage door opened inward.'* A large stage 
door, 1 1 feet high by 12 feet wide, to move scenery 
in and out of the theatre, was in the center of the 
rear wall and moved on rollers from south to north 
on an overhead track as shown in the contempo- 
rary sketch by A. Berghaus.'" Both doors opened 
on the public alleyway at the rear of the theatre. 

" "Sewell Report," op. cit. 

"See Figures 21 and 38. Note particularly scenery 
door with overhead sliding door track and location of 
two windows at the level of the theater gridiron. These 
two windows were removed from the east wall when 
it was rebuilt in 1894 and they still exist on second 
and third floors of the south wall near its east end. 
"Sewell Report No. 2," p. 5. Testimony, Wm, Withers, 
Jr., orchestra leader, in Peterson, op. cit., p. 121; 
Joseph B. Stewart, in Pitman, op. cit., p. 79; and "Ex- 
amination [of Jos. B. Stewart] before Justice A. B. Olin, 
one of the Justices of the Supreme Court, D.C., April 
15, 1865,"p. 3,L.A.S. file. 

"Figure 21. 


Figure 22. Contemporary sketch of front of Ford's Theatre by A. Berghaus at time of assassination. 

Two windows of twelve panes each were in line 
with the windows of the third story of the north 

North dressing room wing 

Immediately adjoining the theatre to the north 
on part of Lot 1 1 was a four-story brick wing 
entered by a door off the north side of the stage. '^ 
Two windows were on each floor in the east or 
rear wall of this building.*- The north wall had 
a window in the star's dressing room on the first 
floor and windows on the second and third floor 
landings of the stairway. Facing west were win- 
dows, one on each floor of the north wing.*^ The 

«■ Figure 21. 

"^ Figure 22. 

" See Figure 38. See also Figure 21, from Frank Les- 
lie's Illustrated Weekly, May 13, 1865. 

'■ See Figure 22, indicating window in the west wall 
of the north dressing room wing. 

inner or south wall of the wing formed the north 
wall of the theatre. 

Addition to the south 

The three-story brick addition to the south was 
constructed in 1863." Its exterior dimensions 
were approximately 25 feet 5 inches on Tenth 
Street (north to south) and 51 feet in depth, west 
to east. The north wall and the theatre's 18 inch 
south wall were one and the same. The west wall 
was about 12 inches thick on the second floor and 
above, and approximately 25 feet six inches north 
to south and about 41 feet from foundations to 
eaves. There was no cellar under the structure. ^^ 
Photos and contemporary sketches of April 1865 
show that the facade of the first floor consisted 
of four sets of glazed and paneled doors of various 

' National Intelligencer, Hecevciher 31, 1863. 
' See drawings accompanying "Sewell Reports.' 

688-440 O— 63- 


sizes. A single door with eight panels provided 
access to the 4-foot wide through passageway from 
Tenth Street to a glass-windowed door on the 
south side of the stage at the rear of the presiden- 
tial box.*" The three paneled and glazed double 
doors provided access to the Star Saloon, a com- 
bined restaurant and bar on the first floor. Tran- 
soms were above these doors which were sur- 
mounted by an overhanging canopy about a foot 
in depth. Two sets of three windows each appear 
on the second and third floors. The windows of 
the second floor had fifteen panes each (the upper 
sash having six, the lower nine) ; those of the 
third floor but twelve panes each.*' The south 

wall of the theatre rose above the Star Saloon 
building which had a ridge roof sloping east and 
west. The south wall was about 12 inches in 
thickness.** The rear wall of the south addition 
was also 12 inches in thickness and had windows 
on all three floors.*" 

Other exterior features 

A slate shingle roof, sloping to the north and 
south from a central east-west ridge, covered the 
theatre."" Appro.ximately equi-distant along the 
ridge, three large hooded, wooden frame ventila- 
tors with louvres were set. They also were cov- 

' Cf. Figures 22, 23 and 39. 
' Ibid. 

" "Sewell Reports." 

"' Cf. Figures 22, 23 and 39. 

" Ibid. 

Figure 23. Contemporary photograph of Ford's Theatre and Star Saloon building from E Street, April 1865, show- 
ing original street lamps and mourning crepe. 


ercd with slate shingles. These ventilators were 
located over the area of the family circle, the 
main body of the theatre, and the stage, re- 
spectively. Ten hatches, five on the north slope 
and five on the south slope of the roof, provided 
additional ventilation.^' Undoubtedly, it was 
these features which caused contemporary ac- 
counts of the theatre to be so laudatory regarding 
its good ventilation."- Altogether there were nine 
chimneys in the entire building: six in the theatre, 
two in the north wing and one in the south addi- 
tion. All of the chimneys were located on the 
exterior walls and emerged from the building near 
the eaves. These numerous chimneys indicate 
that there was no central heating in the theatre 
and that it may have been heated with individual 

Interior of Ford's Theatre 

Without a doubt the interior decor of the theatre 
was much superior to the unfinished exterior. 
When it was nearing completion in August 1863, 
local newspapers and newspaper correspondents 
in the city extolled its merits. For instance, the 
Washington Sunday Chronicle reported on Au- 
gust 23, 1863: 

Mr. Ford has shown what can be done when 
capital, skill, and energy are combined. In five 
short months, contending against unfavorable 
weather, a scarcity of workmen, and a score of 
other difficulties, he has erected a substantial 
theatre which will be an acquisition and an 
ornament to the city, such as none of us, a 
year ago, could have expected to see within at 
least half a generation. In magnitude, com- 
pleteness, and elegance it has few superiors, even 
in our largest cities. It is finished in a style that 
has involved a most lavish expenditure, and 
that has brought into requisition the first me- 
chanical and artistic skill. We heartily con- 
gratulate Mr. Ford on his achievement, and 
sincerely trust that he will have his recompense 
in a continuance and increase of the popularity 
he has always enjoyed, and which we are sure 
he will spare no efforts to retain. 

The ventilation of Mr. Ford's new theatre is 
very perfect. It will seat comfortably an audi- 

ence of two thousand seven hundred,'^ but the 
supply of fresh air constantly conveyed through 
the building will make it as pleasant and health- 
ful as a drawing room. Besides this, the pro- 
tection against accident by fire is complete, 
water in abundance being supplied in every 
part of the immense building. In fact, every 
improvement that genius could devise, and 
skill and wealth achieve, has Mr. Ford brought 
to his aid in the erection of this magnificent 
theatre. . . . 

By contrast, on August 29, 1863, the Washing- 
ton correspondent of the Baltimore Weekly Sun 
gave a more detailed description of the general 
appearance of the interior of the theatre and its 
seating arrangement. He reported: 

Mr. Ford's Theatre on 10th Street is close 
upon completion. It is one of the few buildings 
of Washington which since the war have been 
made new from the ground up. It is a monu- 
ment to individual energy after so great a 
pecuniary reverse as was suffered by Mr. Ford 
through the burning of the old theatre in the 
midst of a flourishing business season. In its 
exterior it will be, when finished, an imposing 
structure, while within one is struck by the re- 
markable appearance of spaciousness and 

The parquette is about equally divided be- 
tween orchestra and other seats, or ranges of 
chairs, which will comfortably accommodate 
over six hundred persons. The dress circle also 
having chairs for seats will accommodate about 
four hundred. The family circle will also hold 
several hundred. The seats are so high above 
those before them that there is no trouble about 
getting a good view of the stage. Indeed a 
person standing at any point in the auditorium 
has that great advantage. There is connected 
with the dress circle a large saloon or retiring 
room which is a most excellent feature of the 
establishment. In all respects the theatre seems 
to be an improvement upon existing ones of the 
country. Its locality (a square from the ave- 
nue), upon higher ground than the latter, is 
favorable for light, air, and drainage. More- 

■" Cf. Figures 22, 23 and 39. 

" Washington Sunday Chronicle, August 23, 1863. 

" Most probably this figure is a typographical error as 
the seating capacity of the theatre was given as 1,700. 


Figure 24. Contemporary sketch of overall scene in Ford's Theatre, April 14, 1865, by A. Berghaus. 

over, the surroundings of the building are not 
of a character to create unpleasant feelings. 
Although little more than the names is known 
about the local artisans and subcontractors hired by 
Ford, the type of work they performed does con- 
firm certain details of the theatre's construction 
and interior decor. Undoubtedly much of the 
work was done by local subcontractors. For 
instance, George R. Callis subcontracted for the 
brickwork; Whitney and Company installed the 
gas fixtures. Charles Stewart did the ornamental 
plastering; J. K. T. Plant, the paperhanging; 

Foster and Sommergetz, the molding and gilding; 
Schutter and Lamb, the fresco work. Holland 
and Company did the upholstering; Stephens exe- 
cuted the cabinet furniture. James Maddox, 
subsequently retained by Ford as theatre property 
man, designed and executed the ornamental stage 
properties. Ford brought Charles S. Getz from 
New York to design and paint the stage scenery.^* 
Thus, from the above facts we know that molding 
actually outlined the large interior panels of the 

" Evening Star, July 29, 1863. Polk's Directory, 1865, 


theatre (as seen in the Brady photographs) and 
that it was not merely painted on the walls ; that 
wallpaper was actually used in the boxes ; and that 
the intricate design seen on the front of the bal- 
cony was most probably plaster applique rather 
than stamped sheet metal as had been believed 


The arched doorways of the west fagade opened 
directly into the lobby which gave access on its 
north end to the dress circle by way of a stairway 
which most probably ran along the west and north 
walls in traditional fashion.''* Three entrances, 
opposite doors 2, 3 and 4, counting from the north, 
gave access to the orchestra and parquet. Clos- 
ing off the south end of the lobby was the box 
office."'' The fourth door, the principal entrance 
for purchasing tickets to the main part of the house, 
was entered over two risers."' The fifth door pro- 
vided access to the family circle."* From this point, 
winding steps most probably went up in a staii-well 
to the family circle or second balcony."" 

The lobby was about 30 feet long and widened to 
about 1 feet at the center from 7 feet at both the 
north and south ends.'™ The box office at the 
south end separated the lobby from the entrance 
to the family circle.'"' The level of the lobby was 
75/2 inches lower than the present level of the first 
floor of the existing structure.'"^ In the lobby, 
above the center door which led into the theatre, 
hung a clock about 7 feet above the level of the 
first floor. i"» 

""■ See especially Figures 28 and 30. 

'"See Figures 25 and 27. 

»"Cf. ibid., and Figure 44. 

"See Figure 23. 

'^ Ibid. 

""Cf. Figures 25 and 27. 

'"' Testimony, James J. Gifford, Surratt Trial, I, 550- 

"" See Figure 25. 

"" See Figure 50, "Contract between Richard Dunbar, 
New York City, and Brevet Major General D. H. Rucker, 
Quartemaster General War Department, August 4, 1865, 
for alteration of Ford's Theatre." The final contract 
was signed on August 17, 1865. Original in R.G. 94, 

"" Testimony, Sgt. Joseph M. Dye, in Pitman, op. cit., 
p. 72. GifTord, op. cit., p. 560. 

Box office 

The box office occupied the south end of the 
lobby between doors 4 and S.'"^ It was also used 
as the treasurer's office. Tickets were sold from 
a window facing the main lobby for the orchestra, 
parquet, dress circle, and boxes. Another window 
faced east, allowing a view of the interior and stage 
of the theatre. Family circle tickets were sold 
exclusively at the gallery ticket window, ap- 
parendy of the dutch door type, the entrance to 
which has already been .described. The size of the 
box office is indicated by the fact that three per- 
sons customarily worked there at the same time.'"° 

Orchestra and parquet 

Access to the orchestra and parquet was con- 
trolled by an entrance door in the north end of the 
lobby at the south edge of door No. 2.'"^ This ar- 
rangement allowed an usher to collect tickets to 
the dress circle and to the upper private boxes 
(Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8). Persons having reserved 
seats secured in advance could enter by door No. 
2 and go direct to their seats in the orchestra, 
parquet, dress circle and lower and upper private 
boxes. Theatre-time ticket purchasers usually 
entered the theatre by door No. 4 at the north 
window of the box office. During inclement 
weather, the central door. No. 3, was usually kept 
closed.'" In addition, draping was used to con- 
serve the heat of the lobby. Egress from the 
theatre following performances was by two addi- 
tional exits from the theatre proper facing doors 
Nos. 3 and 4."* Theatre tickets were easily identi- 
fied by the ushers according to color: white for 
private boxes, orange for 50(t seats and red-purple 
for 250 seats."^ The color of $1 tickets is un- 
known. Tickets usually had a facsimile signature 
on the reverse side, reading "Jas. R. Ford." ^"' 
Private box tickets had to be secured in advance 
and were date-stamped to indicate the day on 
which they were valid."' 

"" See Figure 25. 

'"Statement, H. Clay Ford, p. 12, L.A.S. file. 

"* Gifford, op. cit., p. 558. 

"" Ibid. 

«» Ibid. 

'"See Figures 26 and 41. 

"' Ibid. 

"' H. Clay Ford, op. cit. 



nil /tan u eln mjnm mtmmy 

Jit, r.Ard 

Figure 25. Draftsman's copy of original sketch by Jno. T. Ford, May 1865. 



The orchestra and parquet occupied the first 
floor of the theatre. Its dimensions were approxi- 
mately 45 feet from lobby entrance to the audience 
edge of the orchestra pit and 66 feet 6 inches 
from north to south walls.^" The height of the 
auditorium was about 49 feet to the central 
dome. Seating capacity was about 602 and all 
seats were movable wooden chairs with cane bot- 
toms.^" The floor of the auditorium descended 
by low steps to the edge of the parquet circle and 
only the aisles were probably carpeted.^" The 
seat rows were arranged on concentric arcs, the 
center of the arcs, being located on the east and 
west centerline of the stage.^^^ 

Orchestra seats were to the front of the theatre 
and parquet seats to the rear."" The chairs were 
easily movable so that on special occasions the 
entire area could be boarded level v.'ith the stage 
for dancing and other festivities."' Access to the 
lower tier of boxes was by the north and south 
aisles of the orchestra."® Half circular niches 
on aisles to the rear of the parquet may have ac- 

"- Editorial Note: All measurements for determining 
the original appearance of Ford's Theatre as of April 
14, 1865, have been ascertained as accurately as pos- 
sible from all known existing original sources, by geo- 
metrical determination and by recent architectural ex- 
ploration. Dennin to Olszewski, May 4, 1962. The most 
significant sources have been the following: Statements 
of John T. Ford, H. Clay Ford, James J. Gifford, et al, 
April-May 1865 (L.A.S. file) ; testimony by ibid, during 
the trial of the conspirators in Peterson, op. cit.. Pitman, 
op. cit., and the Surratt Trial, passim; the ticket sales 
plans and seating arrangements, Figures 27, 28 and 
29; Exhibit 48, the Lt. Simon P. Currier drawing; 
various engineering reports with accompanying draw- 
ings such as the "Dunbar Contract, 1865"; the "Sewell 
Reports Nos. 1 and 2, 1893-94"; and the Locraft 
Engineering Drawings, 1955; interviews with all known 
descendants and relatives of the original owner, and 
employees of Ford's Theatre, 1865; in addition to 
numerous original photographs, some of which have been 
but recently uncovered, accompanying the present His- 
toric Structures Report, which provided much basic 
evidence unavailable elsewhere. 

"^See Figure 27. 

"' McClure, op. cit., passim. 

"' See Figure 27. 

"" See Figures 27, 28 and 30. Note especially varia- 
tions in types of chairs. 

'^''National Intelligencer, February 21, 1865. See 
also Appendix "C". 

"' See dress circle seat plan, Figure 29. 


FiotjRE 26. Ford Theatre tickets, April 14, 1865. 


j^Dopr] Doo t r 


_ looa j 


ar«*— »• 







ii^ '- *'^^^«- 

Figure 27 

(harvard theatre collection) 


commodated stoves for heating the theatre or 
probably busts of theatre personalities."^ Recent 
architectural exploration appears to confirm this 
hypothesis.^^ Eight cast iron columns with 
ornamental capitals supported the dress circle 
and were arranged in a semi-circle about 1 1 feet 
apart. They were located about 4 feet to the rear 
of the outer edge of the balcony."^ 

Dress Circle 

The lobby of the horseshoe-shaped dress circle, 
reached by the stairway already described and 
upon which the windows of the second floor of the 
west facade opened, was approximately nine feet 
in width and tweh e feet in height. The floor 
was probably carpeted and descended stepwise 
to the balcony rail the front of which was dec- 
orated with an ornamental plaster applique.''^^ 

The dress circle seated about 422 persons in 
movable wooden chairs with cane seats which 
were somewhat similar in design to those in the 
orchestra and parquet. The seating arrangement 
was divided into five sections and lettered A 
through E, left to right, respectively."^ The rows 
of seats were arranged on concentric arcs with the 
center of the arcs located on the east-west center- 
line of the theatre from a point over the lower 
floor orchestra.^^* The sections were separated by 
four 2-foot 6-inch aisles. Access to the upper tier 
of bo.xes was along the rear of the dress circle and 
the aisles at the north and south walls.^^^ Iron 
columns, placed directly above the ones on the 

"'See Figure 27. 

"° Dennin to Olszewski, passim. 

"'Cf. Figures 28, 30, 31. 

'" Ibid., Testimony, H. Clay Ford in Pitman, op. cit., 
passim. Clues as to the type of frieze on the dress 
and family circle balconies have been deduced from 
various contemporary catalogs of decorative moldings 
and sheet metal work. See especially Catalog of Artistic 
Steel Ceilings, 17th ed. (Chicago: Friedley and Vos- 
hardt, 1904) ; and Sagendorff's Metal Ceiling and Side- 
wall Finish Catalog, 20th Series, 1869-1893 (Phila- 
delphia: Penn Iron Roof and Corugating Co., Ltd., 
\S93) , passim. 

■^ See Figure 29. 

'■' Dennin to Olszewski, October 25, 1961. See also n. 

^ Seat count verified from Figure 29 and statements 
in contemporary newspaper reports. 

first floor, supported the family circle."^ From 
audience right of the dress circle, a 6-foot wide 
double door with two risers descended into the 
lounge, cloakroom, and rest rooms of the south 

Family Circle 

The family circle was reached by a winding 
stairway through the gallery door. The family 
circle lobby was completely separate from the 
orchestra and dress circle lobby. "^ A single usher 
at the entrance door on the third floor collected 
tickets."" A lobby, on which the third floor win- 
dows of the west fagade opened, gave access to 
the balcony benches. A rest room, which is con- 
jectural, may have been located in the NW corner. 
The floor, which was most probably uncarpeted, 
descended by steps to the edge of the second bal- 
cony rail. Seating capacity of the family circle 
was about 600 persons. "Hard tickets" (25^ 
and 500) were used exclusively in the family cir- 
cle."" All seats were high wooden benches but 
were so arranged that the stage was visible from 
any section of the family circle."^ There were no 
reserved seats in this section of the theatre. The 
balcony railing was set back about three feet from 
the face of the dress circle to permit the carrying 
out of the pilastered architectural efTect of the 
upper boxes. A plaster applique, probably similar 
to the one below on the face of the dress circle 
railing but less ornate,"^ ran along the front of the 
railing. Gas lighting fixtures, space about 2 feet 
6 inches apart, ran the full length of the front edge 
of the family circle railing."' On festive occa- 
sions, canary bird cages were suspended from the 
fixtures to provide special decor."* 

'"See especially Figures 28, 30, 31 and 32 showing 
these caps and columns. 

^'Evening Star, February 21, 1865. 

'"' H. Clay Ford, op. cit. 

^ Testi7nony, John T. Ford, in Pitman, op. cit., pp. 

^^ Washington Post, June II, 1893. Statement, 
George D. Ford to Olszewski, New York, Lambs Club, 
Aprils, 1962. 

'^'^ National Intelligencer, .August 26, 1863. 

"= Cf. Figures 28, 30, 31 and 32. 

"^ Ibid. 

'^National Intelligencer, February 21, 1865, ibid., 
February 23, 1865, reports, "Even the canaries chirped 
in time to the music." 


Figure 28. View from stage of presidential box and general seating arrangements. 


Figure ag 


Figure 30. CloseUp of chairs in orchestra and dress circle. 



The boxes were arranged on both stage right 
and stage left. The edges of the boxes were in 
line with the drop curtain which was about 16 
feet beyond the down stage edge of the orchestra 
pit.''^'^ The boxes were arranged in two tiers, the 
floors of the lower boxes being below stage level. ^^® 
The upper boxes, being more elaborate and de- 
sirable, gave an excellent and unobstructed view of 
both stage and audience.'^' The lower boxes, 
numbered 1 and 2, were on stage right, and boxes 
3 and 4 were on stage left.^^ The upper boxes, 
numbered 5 and 6, were on stage right. Boxes 7 
and 8 at stage left were, when combined, known 
as the "Presidential Box." ^^^ Entrance to the 
lower boxes was from the orchestral level. The 
upper boxes were reached by way of the dress 
circle. Box patrons reached their seats by either 
the north or south aisles.^*" 

The fagade of the boxes was in elaborate neo- 
classic design with fluted pilasters both half round 
and square on each side of the upper portion. 
The box enclosure was about 32 feet in height 
from stage level to the cornice, serving overall as 
the apparent support of the wooden proscenium."^ 
This arch extended over and above the forestage 
and was about 39 feet high at its center."- 
Two pilasters and a column with ornamental 
capitals supported two stilted 15-foot high arches 
enframing the upper boxes. "^ A molded en- 
tablature supported the two-foot high balustrade 
under the arches and enclosed the boxes. ^■'■' Be- 
cause of the obvious interest which centers in the 
presidential box, its description will be detailed 
here since none of the other boxes could be en- 

'•'" See Figures 37 and 43, "General view of stage 
setting, Act III, Scene 2, OUR AMERICAN COUSIN, 
April 14,1865." 

'™ See Figures 32 and 34, showing details of the dec- 
orations of the Presidential box and over-all architectural 

■" John T. Ford, op. cit. 

^ See Figures 27 and 29. 

'=• H. Clay Ford, J. J. Gifford, op. cit. 

''"Ibid., and n. 140. 

"' Cf. Figures 24 and 32. See also Figure 53. 

'" Ibid., and Sollers, op. cit., p. 8. 


"* Cf. especially Figures 24 and 32. 

larged. The general decor of wallpaper and 
draperies, however, was similar for the upper boxes 
on SR and SL. 

The Presidential Box 

As indicated, boxes 7 and 8 were known as the 
"Presidential Box." It was entered by a four-foot 
wide vestibule about ten feet long, opening off 
the south aisle of the dress circle. Separate doors, 
approximately 2/2 feet wide and 7 feet high, 
opened into each box.'*^ The door to box 7 was 
on the north side of the vestibule; that to box 8 
faced east."'' A movable partition, about seven 
feet high and 3 inches thick, normally separated 
the boxes."^ The individual boxes usually ac- 
commodated four persons each, but could also 
hold six."* Box tickets cost $10 each and had to 
be reserved in advance.^*^ 

When the presidential party attended Ford's 
Theatre, the partition was removed and the two 
boxes united into one.^^" At such times, addi- 
tional furniture, usually a fancy tufted sofa and 
rocker, was brought from H. Clay Ford's living 
quarters on the third floor of the south addition 
and placed therein."^ Fancy tufted chairs also 
added to the decor.^^^ On these occasions, the 
door on the north side of the vestibule, leading to 
box 7, was usually locked because of the diverse 
angular construction of the box. Entry to the 
combined boxes was normally through the east 
door to box 8.^°' 

The interior was papered with a dark-red fig- 
ured wallpaper as can be seen in the detailed 
closeup of the presidential box in Figure 32. ^'*'' 
Yellow satin draperies overhung Nottingham lace 
curtains and gave greater privacy. Over the 

"=See Figure 33. 

'" Ibid., and John T. Ford, J. J. GiflFord, op. cit. 

"'H. Clay Ford in Peterson, op. cit., p. 120. The 
partition can be seen, distinguished by its dark edge, 
in Figure 34. 

'" Ibid. 

•" Ibid. 

""" Ibid. 

"' Ibid. 

■" Ibid. 

"^ Ibid., and Figure 37. The original door to box 
7 is in the Lincoln Museum. See Figure 33. 



Figure 31. Closeup of seating arrangements in dress circle and benches of family circle. 


draperies, as can be dimly seen in the contemporary 
painting of the inside of the presidential box by 
Chas. Gulager, a valance most probably hung. 
The contemporary sketch by A. Berghaus shows 
the probable design of the Turkish carpeting and 
provides some additional details about the furni- 
ture."' Soft illumination reached the interior 
from a chandelier suspended about 12 feet from 
a cantilevered beam centered over the top of the 
box. This chandelier extended out about four 
feet at right angles from a point directly on top of 
the cornice and hung directly in front of the center 
of the two arches enframing the box."' 


The auditorium was painted white with gold 
trim throughout. Ornamental plaster work and 
mouldings divided the wall areas into large 
well-proportioned panels."' Hose attachments 
throughout the theatre provided precaution 
against possible fire hazards."* One of the prin- 
cipal features of the auditorium was an elaborately 
painted and decorated, inverted, saucer-shaped 
dome which undoubtedly provided additional light 
and ventilation.^^' 

Orchestra pit 

The orchestra pit was bow-shaped and about 
four feet wide at stage center. The pit then nar- 
rowed somewhat at stage left and stage right.^*" 
Directly under the foodights, the pit was entered 
by two narrow doorways about two feet six inches 
in width.'"^ Its floor was probably about 18 
inches lower than the level of the orchestra floor.^"^ 
The pit appears to have been of sufficient propor- 

"^ See Figures 36 and 55. Note especially notations 
identifying color of drapes and types of curtains ; seating 
arrangement of the theatre, and doors to presidential 
box and orchestra pit. 

™Cf. Figures 32 and 43. 

^" Ibid., and Sellers, op. cit., p. 10. 

™ National Intelligencer, passim. 

"• Sollcrs, op. cit., p. 10. The Brady photo, Figure 32 
and the Berghaus sketch, Figui-e 24, give corroborating 
evidence of these details. 

""Cf. Figures 24, 31 and 35. 

'" Ibid. 

"" Determined by the logic of sightlincs, Dennin to 
Olszewski, May 6, 1962. 

tions to permit an orchestra of sufficient size to 
meet the requirements of the production."' 


The stage was approximately 45 feet deep from 
downstage center to upstage at the rear wall and 
about 62.5 feet wide across the backstage. The 
stage house was about 44 feet in height. The 
proscenium was about 36 feet in height at the 
curtain line and spread to a width of 38 feet 
at the box facades. The forestage was covered 
with green baize carpeting and was about 17 feet 
from the edge of downstage center to the curtain 
line.^'* A drop curtain, upon which was painted 
a landscape and a bust of Shakespeare, was raised 
and lowered by two flymen on the fly-galleries 
located three-and-a-half stories above the stage."' 

"" Contemporary newspaper accounts, especially the 
National Intelligencer and the Evening Star, August 
1863 to April 1865, passim. Although little was hereto- 
fore known of the composition of the orchestra, the 
names of the following musicians have come to light: 
William Withers, Jr., leader and 1st violin; his brother, 
Reuben Withers, 2nd violin; Isaac S. Bradley, violin; 
Wm. Musgine, violoncello; George M. Arth, bass violin; 
and Louis Weber, bass violin. There were also bells, 
timpani, trangle and drums in the orchestra. Scipio 
Grillo, part-owner of the Star Saloon, also played at the 
theatre, although his instrument is not identified. H. B. 
Phillips wrote the lyrics and Withers composed the music 
to the song "Honor To Our Soldiers," which was to be 
sung in Lincoln's honor on April 14, 1865. Laura Kcene 
loaned her Chickering piano to Ford for the singing of 
the song. Wm. Withers, Jr. taught Tad, Lincoln's favor- 
ite son, to play the drums. Withers also composed much 
of the standard repertoire of the orchestra, including the 
"Laura Waltz" among others. Some of the more impor- 
tant sources of the foregoing information are: Letters, 
Mrs. C. Forster (Bradley's daughter), Anderson, Indiana, 
June 17, 1961 ; Mrs. Gertrude Rodrigue (Withers' sister), 
Greenwich, Conn., August 15, 1961, to Colonel Randle 
B. Truett, Chief Park Historian, N.C.P. ; Letters, Matt 
Dennis, Beverly Hills, Calif., May to August 1961 ; 
Statement, Mel Clement; Miss Hazel Arth (grandniece 
of George M. Arth), Washington, March 12, 1962; 
Letter and photo of Laura Keene's piano, J. B. Hendryx, 
Adv. Mgr., Aeolian American Corporation, East Roches- 
ter, N.Y., July 5, 1961, to Olszewski. Boston Transcript, 
June 15, 1898. Brady photo, Figure 35, shows part of 
the orchestra pit. 

""Figure 24; n. 112. 

'"Ibid., especially Statement of Joe Simms, April 19, 
1865, and "Examination before Justice Olin of John 
Miles, April 15, 1865." L.A.S. file. 



Figure 32. Architectural details of presidential box and interior of Ford's Theatre, April 1865. 


To the rear of the drop curtain was the elaborate 
main curtain. ^"^ Four sets of five lines each ap- 
pear at stage-right and stage-left, probably to 
indicate the position of scenery flats.^"^ The 
central scenes were lowered from the fly gal- 
leries.^^ Stage lighting was provided by 17 gas 
lights enclosed by sconces to shade them as foot- 
lights.^'^'' Stage and house lights were controlled 
by a governor housed to the rear of the boxes on 
stage-right."" The prompter's table stood at 
stage-right concealed by the edge of the 
proscenium."^ A speaking tube, connecting the 
stage manager with the orchestra leader in the pit 
below stage, was located at the prompter's table.'" 

A three-foot wide stage door in the south wall 
led from the Tenth Street passageway into the 
theatre on stage-left.'" Opposite the wings on 
stage-left, a passageway led from the basement 
stairs to the stage door."* In the southeast corner 
was a two-foot wide stairway along the south wall 
which led to the basement."^ This stairway also 
provided access to the orchestra pit and unhind- 
ered passageway from stage-right to stage-left 
through the basement and by the stairs along the 
north wall, to the small exit door at the rear 
alley."* This door was about 3 feet by 7 feet and 
opened inward.'" Trapdoors covered both stair- 

The passageway on stage-right varied in width 
according to the manner in which the scenery was 
piled along the north wall to the rear door.'" 
Generally this passageway was kept clear to pro- 

"»See Figures 32 and 43. 

"" Figure 37. 

"* James Lamb, Joe Simms, John Miles, op. cit., 

'»»See Figures 32 and 43. 

'™Gifford, op. cit. 

^" John T. Ford and Gifford testimony in Surratt Trial, 
op. cit., passim. 

"' Sellers, op. cit., p. 9. 

™ Ford, op. cit. See Figures 25 and 44. Note also 
Debonay's testimony, op. cit. 

"* Ibid. 

'" See Figures 25 and 44; Debonay, op. cit. 

'"" Ibid. 

''"Ibid., and Figure 21. "Examination of Joseph R. 
Stewart before Justice Olin of the Supreme Court, D.C., 
April 15, 1865." L.A.S. file. 

"' Testimony of Wm. Withers, Jr., Surratt Trial, op. 
cit., p. 104. 

'■'Figure 37. GifTord testimony, op. cit. 

vide for an orderly movement of stage scenery and 
for the unencumbered entrance and exit of actors 
awaiting their cues in the adjoining greenroom 
in the north wing.'^" A 3 by 8 foot door con- 
nected the north wing and the stage.'*' 

The stage machinery was operated from the 
flies. Standard scenery, special effects and drops 
were controlled by ropes, pulleys, and sandbag 
counter-weights.'®^ The paint bridge was about 
1 1 feet above the flies and extended across the 
rear of the theatre."' A carpenter shop was 
on the fourth floor of the north wing. It probably 
opened onto a platform from which one flight of 
steps ran up to the paint bridge and another ran 
down to the fly gallery at stage-right.'®* About 
40 to 50 eighty-foot lengths of hemp border ropes 
were fastened to the pin rails and released as re- 
quired to raise and lower the scenery.'®' Two 
windows in the rear wall of the theatre, one on 
stage-right, the other on stage-left, opened off 
the fly galleries. They were about on the same 
level with the windows on the third floor level of 
the north wing.'®'' 


The basement of the theatre was excavated from 
the east wall to the front edge of the stage.'®' Its 
maximum width was about 44 feet 6 inches east 
to west and 64 feet north to south.'®^ Brick arches 
may have supported the stage and boxes. The 
portions of the first floor of the theatre which 
were not under the stage rested directly on bare 
earth.'®" The two stairways, already described, 
were located in the northeast and southeast cor- 
ners of the theatre as shown on the drawing bear- 
ing the name of "Jno T. Ford." '«> 

'"" Ford testimony in Pitman, op. cit., p. 102. 

'^ Ibid. 

"' Lamb, Simms and Miles in Pitman, op. cit., passim. 
Ibid., L.A.S. file. 

"" Gifford and Lamb, L.A.S. file. 

'" Lamb, op cit. 

'"Lamb testimony in Pitman, op. cit., p. 106. 

'"Cf. Figures 21 and 38. 

"'Of. "Casey Report, 1878"; "Sewell Report No. 1, 

"» Locraft Plans, Sheet No. 3. 

"• See drawings accompanying Sewell, op. cit., and 
Figure 38 

"° See Figures 25 and 44. 

688-440 O — 63- 


Figure 33. Contemporary sketch of passageway to presidential box and closeup of original door to box 7. 

North wing 

The north wing was a four-story, L-shaped 
building, approximately 23 by 48 feet with a 
central passageway off of which rooms opened to 
the east and west. Each floor was connected by 
a narrow stairway.^^^ 

The stage manager's office occupied the west 
room on the first floor. The greenroom was on 
the east.'®^ Rooms on the second and third floors 

"' Testimony of Louis J. Garland in Pitman, op. cit., 
pp. 108-9. 

"° Mario Da Parma of New York City recently 
donated the original greenroom clock to the Lincoln 
Museum. It was in the possession of the Harry Clay 
Ford family, passing on down to Frank Ford, op. cit. 
See Figure 58. 

were used as dressing rooms. '''^ The upper and 
lower floors were connected by a narrow stair- 
way at the north end of the wing. Although this 
stairway was just wide enough for the passage 
of ladies in full dress costumes,^'* it was too nar- 
row to permit lumber to be carried upstairs to the 
carpenter shop on the east side of the fourth floor. 
The wardrobe room occupied the west side.^^^ As 
already described, a door led from the fourth floor 
to the theatre fly galleries and the paint bridge. 
Windows faced west between the wing and the 
building adjoining Ford's on the north.^'^ Two 

'" Carland, op. cit. 
"' Ibid., and Ford, op. cit. 
'" Carland, op. cit. 

"* See Figure 22. Note the indication of a window in 
the west wall. 



Figure 34. Closeup of interior of presidential box showing rocker in which Lincoln was shot, sofa, chairs, partition, wall- 
paper and door to box 7 through which Booth entered. 


Figure 35. Closeup of stage center by M. Brady, showing part of orchestra pit. 

(nationai- archives) 


(library of congress > 
Figure 36. Contemporary sketch of presidential box and interior of Ford's Theatre, by A. Waud. 

windows were also installed on each floor of the 
rear or east wall.'*'' Chimneys were located on 
the northeast and northwest corners.'"* Gas light- 
ing was used throughout the north wing and 
rest rooms most probably occupied convenient 

South addition 

The south addition was a three-story brick 
building built by Ford in 1863 as an extension of 
his theatre.'"" A combined restaurant and bar, 
known as Peter Taltavul's "Star Saloon," oc- 
cupied the first floor. ^°° The second floor, which 
was used as a cloakroom and lounge of the dress 
circle, was connected to the theatre by a double 
doorway. Larger windows on this floor of the 
building provided additional light and ventilation 

'" See Figures 2 1 and 38. 

"* Locraft Plans, Sheet No. 9. 

"" National Intelligencer, April 18, 1865. 

""" See Figure 39. Testimony of Peter Taltavul, L.A.S. 
file. John M. TaltavuU, great grandnephew of the 
former owner of the Star Saloon is now an employee of 

for what was considered to be a spacious lounge.^" 
Rest rooms were most probably at the rear for the 
convenience of dress circle patrons. Because of 
the difference in the floor levels of this building 
and Ford's Theatre, all connecting doors de- 
scended stepwise to the lower levels of the south 
addition. H. Clay Ford and James R. Ford oc- 
cupied rooms on the third floor which they could 
reach through the door from the lobby of the dress 
circle or through another doorway at the level 
of the family circle.-"" An outside stairway pro- 
vided ready access from the theatre to the rear 
of the second floor. Finally, a four-foot wide 
covered passageway ran between the theatre and 
the Star Saloon and gave the actors quick passage 
from Tenth Street to the stage door in the south 
wall of the theatre.-"^ And it was through this 
passageway that John Wilkes Booth was to pass 
while on his way to assassinate President Abraham 
Lincoln on Good Friday, 1865. 

^^ Ibid., and National Intelligencer, February 21, 

"" See Figure 20. These Were Actors, p. 306. State- 
ments, Frank Ford and George D. Ford to Olszewski, 
New York, April 8, 1962. 

'"' See Figures 25 and 44. 




^^^ , 








(national archives) 
Figure 37. Original stage plan of Ford's Theatre, drawn by Lt. Simon P. Currier, used during the trial of the Lincoln 
conspirators. The forestage curves the wrong way in the drawing. 


PART III— April i4, i86j and Its Aftermath 


Throughout the period of its existence, from 
August 27, 1863, to the fatal day, April 14, 1865, 
that was to close its doors as a center of histrionic 
amusement in the Capital City, Ford's Theatre 
presented some of the best in theatrical and musi- 
cal talent that was available on the American 
stage. According to the final playbill of that 
night, Ford had staged in the theatre's two seasons 
495 nightly performances. 

Without a doubt much of Ford's success was 
due to the expense and pains he had incurred 
in constructing a theatre that was considered, ac- 
cording to contemporary accounts, to have few, 
if any, superiors even in the largest cities of 
the nation. Ford's Theatre had magnitude; it 
was complete; it had elegance. Its style had 
brought together the finest mechanical skill and 
artistic talent. For its size, the ventilation was said 
to be perfect and the supply of fresh air conveyed 
through the theatre made it as comfortable as a 
drawing room, even when playing to a capacity 
audience. It had complete protection against 
fire and accident. Ford's operation of his theatre 
was considered to be superior to that of his lead- 
ing competitor, Leonard Grover of the National, 
and Ford's Theatre was the scene of many a bril- 
liant performance which was graced by the pres- 
ence of the First Family of the nation. 

Up to 1865, Lincoln had attended Ford's Thea- 
tre eight times: five times in 1863, and three times 
in 1864. Sometimes, the First Lady attended with 
her own party. In 1863 the President had seen 
Maggie Mitchell in "Fanchon, the Cricket," on 
Friday, October 30; John Wilkes Booth in "The 
Marble Heart," on Monday, November 9; and 
three performances of his favorite Shakespearean 
actor, J. H. Hackett, in "Henry IV," on Monday, 
November 14; the same performance the follow- 
ing night, November 15; and in "The Merry 
Wives of Windsor," on Thursday evening, Decem- 
ber 17, 1863. In 1864, Lincoln attended a per- 
formance by Edwin Forrest in "King Lear," on 
Friday, April 8; a Sacred Concert on Sunday, 
June 19; and a Treasury Ball and Concert on 
Monday, December 1 9. H. Clay Ford took special 
pains to decorate the presidential box for these gala 

performances. John T. Ford usually divided his 
time between his Holliday Street Theatre in Balti- 
more and Ford's in Washington. 


On April 14, 1865, Washington was enjoying an 
air of gaiety and excitement reigned throughout 
the city. The Civil War had ended and many of 
the 200,000 soldiers visiting the city hoped to catch 
a glimpse of .their favorite hero. General U. S. 
Grant, commander of the victorious Union forces. 
Ford's Theatre was also the scene of anticipation 
for Lincoln had finally accepted an invitation from 
Ford to attend the performance that evening. 
Laura Keene, Harry Hawk, and John Dyott were 
winding up their two-week engagement at the 
theatre with Ford's stock company. The play 
scheduled was to be a benefit for Miss Keene of 
Tom Taylor's "Our American Cousin." Because 
of the technical nature of this Historic Structures 
Report on Ford's Theatre, however, only the barest 
details will be enumerated of the events of that 
fatal day to complete its scope. 

A messenger arrived at the theatre from the 
White House about 10:30 a.m. to reserve the 
presidential bo.x for the performance that evening. 
It was expected that the President would have as 
his guests General and Mrs. U. S. Grant. James 
Ford, with the help of H. B. Phillips, an actor of 
the Ford stock company, wrote the notice that 
appeared in the Evening Star about 2 : 00 p.m. that 
afternoon and in the National Intelligencer. New 
handbills were also ordered printed. When Harry 
Ford returned from breakfast about 11:30 a.m., 
James informed him of the President's coming. 
Because of the rehearsal going on at the time, 
however, Harry had to wait to decorate the presi- 
dential box. Later that day the notices and hand- 
bills had to be changed when it was learned that 
General Grant would not attend the theatre be- 
cause of illness in his family. Extra play-bills and 
handbills, which runners of the theatre passed out 
on the streets, were printed to attract the atten- 
tion of military personnel on leave in the city. 

Sometime that afternoon, between 3:00 and 
6:00 p.m., Harry Ford personally decorated the 


Figure 38. View of rear wall, Ford's Theatre building, at time of collapse of part of interior on June 9, 1893, showing 

bricked-in scenery and rear stagedoors. 


Figure 39. Closeup of fagade of Star Saloon and possible location of theatre cornerstone. 

presidential box because of the illness of Thomas 
J. Raybold, whose normal duty it was to attend 
to such matters. Harry Ford placed in the box 
three velvet-covered armchairs, a velvet-covered 
sofa, and six cane chairs, all being brought from 
the greenroom and the stage. "Peanuts" Bur- 
roughs, the colored boy who was doorman at the 
stage door to the Tenth Street passageway, 
brought a walnut rocker from Ford's rooms on the 
third floor of the Star Saloon building attached 
to the theatre. Ford also placed two American 
flags on staffs at each end of the expanded box, 
draped two more on the velvet-covered balustrade 
of each box (7 and 8), and at the center post 
placed a blue Treasury Guards regimental flag. 
Ford added an additional touch to these normal 
decorations of the presidential box when he placed 
a gilt-framed engraving of Washington on its cen- 
tral pillar for the first time. Edward ("Ned") 

Spangler, one of the stage hands, moved the par- 
tition, which usually separated the two boxes, to 
the east side of the presidential box. Because a 
triangular corner was formed in box 7 when the 
partition was removed, the walnut rocker in which 
the President was to sit was placed there with its 
rockers pointing west towards the audience. Even 
though the locks and keepers on the two doors of 
the passageway behind the boxes had been broken 
the previous month, no one had taken the trouble 
to call GifFord's attention to this matter. As head 
carpenter of the theatre, he was responsible for 
their condition. Despite all attempts to prove, 
without success, that the hole in the door to box 7 
was bored by Booth that same afternoon, a recent 
letter from Frank Ford of New York City may 
clarify this fact. In part, his letter states: 

As I told you on your visit here in New York, 
I say again and unequivocally that John Wilkes 



Tenth sr&E.B.y. abovk b. 



,«IEEK XXXI — NIOffTjlW- - 

ILB M7IIBIK OF MoflTS, ij r f 

T. K»tD „ PtOPBIBTOt A?il>»I»H*an 

^Uttt* DaUIdBTBt. TtaMO^ BuhJ— f . mai A'*twmij ol Kail-. rui'*-J 

...;.,_ _..-—. J- n vifi^ar 

Friday Evening, April 14 tb, 1865 

' AND Jraf 


or" ^/Limm 















Figure 40. Final playbill prepared for Lincoln's attend- 
ance at Ford's Theatre, April 14, 1865. 

Booth did not bore the hole in the door leading 
to the box: President Lincoln occupied the night 
of the assassination, April 14, 1865. . . . 

The hole was bored by my father, Harry Clay 
Ford, or rather on his orders, and was bored for 
the very simple reason it would allow the guard, 
one Parker, easy opportunity whenever he so 
desired to look into the box rather than to open 
the inner door to check on the presidential 
party. . . } 
Nevertheless, even if Booth did not personally at- 
tend to this matter which worked to his advantage 
in carrying out his nefarious plan, someone familiar 
with Ford's Theatre did prepare the bar and scoop 
the plaster out of the wall so that the entrance 
door to the passageway leading to the presidential 
box could be secured behind him. 


On Tenth Street that evening, Ford's Theatre 
presented an atmosphere of theatrical gaiety 
coupled with the religious mystery of Good Friday, 
1865. The glimmer in the damp weather of Holy 
Week of the huge gas lamp standing in front of 
the theatre at the sidewalk platform was enhanced 
by the sickly, yellowish flame of black, smoking 
tar torches stuck in barrels running down the street 
to Pennsylvania Avenue. At each barrel stood a 
barker yelling, "This way to Ford's." Inside the 
theatre, a gala evening was looked forward to and 
Laura Keene had lent the Fords her personal piano 
for use that evening for the singing of a special 
song "Honor to Our Soldiers" composed for the 
occasion by Wm. Withers, with lyrics written by 
H. B. Phillips. The song was to be sung by the 
entire company at the close of "Our American 
Cousin." While the house was not crowded to 
capacity at all levels, there was a good sized audi- 
ence eager to see the President. Because of Lin- 
coln's anathema to personal bodyguards, "it was 
not the custom when the President . . . came there 
to place a sentry at the door or for a man to keep 
the public peace," this custom was adhered to that 

' Letter, Frank Ford to Olszewski, New York, N.Y., 
April 13, 1962. These views are corroborated by George 
D. Ford. op. cit. See Figure 62. 


night. Earlier tljat day, Booth had been seen 
around the theatre twice. 

About 8 : 30 p.m., the President and Mrs. Lin- 
coln, accompanied by Major H. R. Rathbone, 
the President's military aide, and Miss Clara 
Harris, his fiancee, the daughter of Senator Ira 
Harris of New York, entered the theatre through 
the second door of the lobby. John F. Parker, de- 
tailed to the White House to guard the President, 
joined the party at the theatre. John M. Buck- 
ingham, the doorkeeper and main ticket collec- 
tor, greeted them as Parker escorted the presi- 
dential party up the stairs to the dress circle, 
through its lobby and down the steps along the 

south wall. Just as they got to the door to en- 
ter the passageway to their seats, Lincoln paused 
and bowed to the audience to acknowledge their 
stormy and enthusiastic greeting. Onstage "Our 
American Cousin" was going smoothly and Lord 
Dundreary (E. A. Emerson) was telling Florence 
Trenchard (Laura Keene) why a dog wags its 
tail. Withers stopped the orchestra, as soon as 
he became conscious of the excitement aroused 
by the President's arrival, and struck up "Hail 
to the Chief" as stage action was halted, the audi- 
ence rose, and all eyes were turned toward the 





Ford's Theatre-Washington. 

Reserved Chair— Friday, 



%r Give this portion of the Ticket for entrance 
, to the Door-keeper. 

fa). M. ^oidj 

Figure 41. Ticket for reserved orchestra seat, April 14, 1865. 


4t -^-t 
Figure 42. Closeup of typical poster of Ford's Theatre, April 1865. 


Figure 43. Composite Brady photographs of stage setting at time of Lincoln's assassination, Act III, Scene 2, "Our Ameri- 
can Cousin." 

While the orchestra played the group entered 
the presidential box by the east door, the door to 
box 8. All then acknowledged the audience's wel- 
come. Mrs. Lincoln then sat in a cane chair next 
to the President's rocker in box 7 ; Miss Harris sat 
in the armchair nearest the stage; the President sat 
in the rocker farthest from the stage where he was 
barely visible to the audience. Major Rathbone 
sat on the velvet-covered sofa behind Miss Harris 
and toward the rear of box 8. One of the arm- 
chairs and five of the cane chairs remained un- 
occupied. Although the doors were closed, the 
locks on all were broken and they could be easily 
pushed in. Parker, the sole bodyguard permitted 
by the President, sat outside the entrance door 
but shortly left his post. The presidential party 
was thus left unprotected. During the per- 
formance, the audience occasionally caught 
glimpses of Lincoln's profile and saw his left hand 
resting on the flag-draped balustrade. 

About nine o'clock Booth rode up to the back 
door of the theatre on his roan mare. He came 
in the rear door and called for Ned Spangler. 
Debonay, v/ho shifted scenes on SL, passed the 
message along. Spangler, who had just shifted 
a scene into place on SR, went out and Booth 
entered the theatre, asking Debonay if he could 
cross the stage. Debonay told Booth he could 
pass under the stage. He then accompanied 

the actor down the stairway on SL to the base- 
ment, crossed under the stage, and came up the 
stairway on SR. Booth then hurried down the 
SR passageway and out through the stage door 
into the Tenth Street passageway. After Booth 
had passed out the stage door, Spangler called for 
Peanuts, who was on duty at this point, to come 
and hold Booth's horse so that he (Spangler) could 
return to his duties on stage. By this time Booth 
had entered the Star Saloon and was being served 
a shot of whiskey by Peter Taltavul. 

Shortly after ten o'clock. Booth walked into the 
theatre, checked the time on the lobby clock, 
walked past Buckingham and mounted the stairs 
to the dress circle. He paused a few moments to 
observe the progress of Scene 2 of Act HI on stage, 
quickly entered the passageway to the presidential 
box, and secured the door behind him with the 
previously prepared bar. He shoved it into the 
hole in the wall to countersink it against the door 
to avoid interference with his plans. 

Booth then entered the presidential box by the 
door to box 7 and because of the darkness was 
able to move around behind the President without 
detection and fire the fatal shot. Hearing the 
report. Major Rathbone leaped to his feet and 
grappled with the assassin who stabbed him twice. 
Booth then vaulted over the balustrade of box 7 
to the floor of the stage below, tearing a hole in 
the green baize carpeting which covered the fore- 


»>w.av« '■ • •• • j 

" ^ ^ ^ 


Figure 44. Original pencil sketch by Jno. T. Ford while in Capital Prison, 

May 1865. 


stage. In his jump, the spur on Booth's right foot 
turned over the picture of Washington and tore 
the edge of the blue Treasury Guards flag. Al- 
though the tibia of his right leg was fractured, 
Booth was able to make good his escape with little 
trouble by running across stage and down the com- 
paratively clear passageway on SR. On his way 
Booth ran into Withers, slashed him twice, and dis- 
appeared through the rear door, jerking it shut 
after him. Booth then seized the reins of his horse 
from Peanuts, knocked him to the ground, jumped 
astride his horse and made good his escape through 
the alley to the rear whose exit was on F Street. 
Inside the theatre a hushed stillness pervaded the 
atmosphere the moment the enormity of Booth's 
crime was realized. The silence was reminiscent of 
that which had overshadowed the earth earlier 
that day in memory of the death of the Redeemer. 


President Lincoln's death at 7:22 a.m. the fol- 
lowing morning in the Petersen House, across the 
street from Ford's, ended the use of the building 
as a theatre. Military guards had been immedi- 
ately posted at the theatre and access to it only 
permitted by special pass from the Judge Ad- 
vocate's Office, War Department. For a few days 
several of the theatre employees were allowed to 
sleep in their regular rooms in the north wing of 
the structure and several of the musicians and 
actors were allowed to remove their personnal 
possessions. Fortunately, Mathew Brady was per- 
mitted to photograph the interior of the theatre 
as it was at the time of the assassination and today 
his photographs constitute one of the most im- 
portant documentary sources on the appearance 
of the interior and exterior of Ford's Theatre as 
of April 14,1865. 

Lt. Simon P. Currier of the Judge Advocate's 
Office was ordered to draw a plan of the stage 
of Ford's Theatre, establishing precise measure- 
ments and the location of all stage paraphernalia 
used that night, in addition to listing all persons 
associated with the production of OUR AMERI- 
CAN COUSIN. Minute measurements of the 
boxes were also made. This plan was sub- 
sequently used during the trial of the conspirators 
and identified as "Exhibit No. 48." During the 
trial which lasted from May to July 1865, mem- 

bers of the court and jury visited the theatre on 
occasion to establish the veracity of statements 
made during the trial proceedings. 

John T. Ford received official permission to re- 
open the theatre after the hanging of the con- 
spirators on July 7, 1865. He advertised that 
THE OCTOROON, the play which had been 
scheduled for Saturday night, April 15, 1865, 
would be given on the evening of July 10, 1865. 
Ford sold over 200 tickets for the performance. 
He also received an anonymous letter from an 
outraged citizen, who threatened to bum the 
theatre if it should reopen as a place of amuse- 
ment. As a precautionary measure, the Judge Ad- 
vocate ordered a troop of soldiers to be stationed 
at the theatre and to deny admission to all comers. 
A company of cavalry was also held in readiness 
on the outskirts of the city in case of emergency. 

When the theatre opened that night Ford re- 
funded the purchasers the price paid for their 
tickets of admission. Despite a fairly large crowd 
milling in the streets nothing untoward occurred 
for a placard had been placed on the door read- 
ing, "Closed by Order of the Secretary of War." 
This was Ford's last attempt to stage a theatrical 
performance in the building. Shortly thereafter 
the theatre was taken over by the government to 
be converted and remodeled into a three-story of- 
fice building. Ford was paid $1,500 per month, 
beginning July 8, 1865, for the lease of his theatre 
until such time as Congress would appropriate 
sufficient money to authorize the purchase of the 
building. In July 1866 Ford was paid $88,000 as 
a final settlement by the Treasury Department 
for the purchase of the structure, having already 
received $12,000 in rentals under the terms of the 
original lease between Ford and the Office of the 
Quartermaster General, War Department. 

Once the building was taken over by the gov- 
ernment, the Quartermaster General started to 
convert the theatre into a three-story office build- 
ing for the use of the government, owing to the 
shortage of office space in post-war Washington. 
Richard Dunbar of New York City was awarded 
the contract, his bid being $28,500. In mid- 
August 1865 Dunbar began tearing out the interior 
of the theatre as souvenir hunters went wild. 
By December of that year, Dunbar had altered 
the building to such an extent that the Surgeon 


J1^ Aj--^ f^^- '^^^^T^-^L-.^.*^ /Hr^^W^ ^:t^ 
^(^-l^LAaL c^^t^L>-iSfcH^ ci^A^^ <^:^'^^-^ c^r-t/i^ O^ 


„ rr^i . , (MARY1_AND historical SOCIETY) 

I'iGURE 45. Ihreatening letter received by Ford. 


General was authorized to take it over for the use 
of the Army Medical Museum. The building was 
used for this purpose until 1887 when Congress 
appropriated funds for the construction of an 
independent Army Medical Museum at the corner 
of 7th Street and Independence Avenue, North- 

From 1866 to 1887 only the third floor had 
been used by the Medical Museum. The Office of 
Records and Pensions, the Adjutant General's 
Office, used the first and second floors of the 
remodeled theatre building, which became known 
as "Old Ford's Theatre Building," to compile the 
official pension records of veterans of the Civil 
War. When the Surgeon General vacated the 
building in 1887, the Adjutant General took over 
the entire structure. 

Tragedy struck the theatre building once again 
on June 9, 1893, when a 40-foot section of the front 
of the building collapsed from the third floor hurl- 
ing men, desks, and heavy file cases into the cellar, 
killing 22 government employees and injuring 65 
others. The cause was not only due to overload- 
ing the floor but also to the negligence of a build- 
ing contractor, George W. Dant, who was excavat- 
ing under the pillars in the cellar improperly and 
without sufficient shoring to support the floors. 
Following congressional investigation of the trag- 
edy, the building's career as an office structure was 
ended with but minor activities being allowed in 
it thereafter. 

From 1893 to 1931 the building served as a 
publications depot for the Adjutant General. In 
1931, Old Ford's Theatre Building was turned over 
to the Department of the Interior and in 1932 
the Lincoln Museum was opened on the first 
floor, the upper stories being used for small office 
forces. The north wing and south addition had 
been used during this period as subsidiary offices, 
the latter serving mainly as a recruiting station of 
the War Department during World War I and for 
some time thereafter. In 1930 the south addition 
was demolished and today the land on which the 
building stood (part of lot 9) serves as a parking 
area for staff members of the Lincoln Museum and 
the Branch of History, National Capital Region, 
National Park Service. 

From time to time throughout the foregoing 
period various modifications were made in the 
building, particularly after the collapse in 1893. 

The most important of these modifications which 
actually changed the structure from its original 
dimensions and appearance was the raising of the 
first ffoor 7/2 inches from its original base; the 
strengthening of the north wall in 1878; the com- 
plete rebuilding of the east wall by the Corps of 
Engineers in 1894, and the installation of larger 
windows with ventilators on the second and third 
floors of the west fagade. The appearance of the 
east wall, for instance, was completely changed 
from its original design. The large scenery door 
and the small door through which Booth had es- 
caped were not reinstalled when the east wall was 
rebuilt. Fortunately, sketches which appeared in 
Harpers's Illustrated Weekly and Frank Leslie's 
Illustrated Newspaper in May 1865, and deposi- 
tions of Ford's Theatre employees have enabled 
the Architectural Branch, Region VI, National 
Park Service, to definitely reestablish the appear- 
ance of the east or rear wall as it was in the 
original theatre. The removal of the large ven- 
tilators from the roof, the installation of the sky- 
light and smaller ventilators; the finishing off of 
the cornice and the installation of a ventilating 
window in its center; and the enlarging of the four 
windows on the second and third floors of the 
building have all been verified from the various 
reports of the occupants of the building and the 
reports and drawings of the Quartermaster Gen- 
eral and the Corps of Engineers who actually 
carried out the work of remodeling the structure. 
The photos, the most important of which are in- 
cluded in the present report, identify these 
changes and authenticate current observations. 

With respect to the interior furnishings of the 
theatre, the Quartermaster General removed 988 
chairs which were presumably used in government 
offices. Despite an extensive investigation to ob- 
tain samples of these chairs, no trace of them has 
been found. One report stated that three of the 
chairs were in use in the Supervisor's Office of the 
Culpeper National Cemetery, at Culpeper, Vir- 
ginia. Investigation, however, revealed that they 
had been disposed of when new furniture was 

In 1866 Ford was authorized by the Quarter- 
master General to remove the posts which sup- 
ported the dress circle and family circle, the 
proscenium, and undoubtedly other miscellaneous 
materials which could not be used by the gov- 

688^40 o — OS- 


tw Jtrti's M'UclL'vil ttrwJvxA «.cL vu Hu, J) JChni^J TcrtL 

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^\ Xd^ \U^5 a>^cL SLOctuvA J l^^i( \^^(liy> U cUJ^M-«^L jvw, 

Figure 46. Final Treasury settlement for purchase of Ford's Theatre, July 21, i866. 


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Figure 47. Proposal of Architect of Capitol for alteration of Ford's Theatre, July 27, 1865. 

ernment. Most probably Ford used these materials 
when he constructed his new Ford's Theatre also 
known as "Ford's Grand Opera House," in Balti- 
more, Maryland, in 1871. Although several trips 
have been made to this theatre and the records 
of the Ford Family Papers intensively researched, 
no evidence has been uncovered as to the actual 
use of these materials from his Washington theatre. 
However, according to an interview with George 
D. Ford, at the Lambs Club, New York City, on 
April 8, 1962, the remodeling of Ford's in Balti- 
more over the years resulted in any materials of 

such age being replaced by more modern and 
fireproof devices. With the Baltimore Ford's 
Theatre scheduled for demolition, the possibility 
of recovering any of the original stage para- 
phernalia or apparatus used in the original Ford's 
Theatre, Washington, has now vanished. Never- 
theless, under present plans and with the comple- 
tion of the historical report and the architectural 
drawings, there can be little doubt that the pres- 
ent building can be restored to the original ap- 
pearance of Ford's Theatre as of the night of 
April 14, 1865. 



Figure 48. Early phase of remodeling Ford's Theatre by Richard Dunbar, c. September 1865. 



Prepared Under the Technical Supervision of 

Charles W. Lessig 

Chief, Division of Architecture 

National Capital Office 

Design and Construction 


William A. Dennin 

Supervisory Architect 

National Capital Region 





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Notes for the Restoration of Ford's Theater 


The levels and transit lines established by the 
Bernard F. Locraft Engineering Report of 1955 
are used consistently as a reference to locate fea- 
tures of the existing structure which are to be 
retained in the restored theatre. The use of these 
reference lines is considered necessary because in 
this building, as in many historic structures, the 
walls are not plumb, the corners are not square, 
and the floors and ceilings are not level. The 
datum used for the restoration drawings is 7/2 
inches below the existing first floor level at the 
center of doorway No. 5 on Tenth Street.^ 


The conjectural basement plan is shown partly 
excavated and partly unexcavated. It is known 
that the understage area of the theatre was ex- 
cavated because there are several references to 

' "Specifications for the alteration of Ford's Theatre 
into a Fire Proof Depository for Public Records," in 
Chief Quartermaster's Office, Depot of Washington, 
DC, August 4th, 1865, by D. H. Rucker, Brevet Major 
General and Quartermaster. The specifications of this 
contract stated that the level of the first floor was to be 
raised seven and one-half inches above the then existing 
floor level. This floor level is now in existence and 
known to be at elevation 29.80'. The datum used for 
the restoration of Ford's Theatre will be elevation 29.80' 
— .62' or 29.18'. The 29.80' elevation was determined 
by the engineering firm of Bernard F. Locraft based on 
datum supplied in 1955 by the D.C. Highway De- 

people passing under the stage. ^ On an 1865 
sketch plan, for instance, bearing the name of 
"Jno. T. Ford," stairways are shown in the north- 
east and southeast corners of the building, de- 
scending to the basement.' The finished sketch 
plan was probably drawn by a draftsman from a 
cruder pencilled sketch actually "drawn from 
memory" by John T. Ford when he was held in 
Capitol Prison during April and May 1865.'' The 
completed sketch shows some degree of skill in 
the draftsmanship and lettering. 

The front of the stage and the front of the 
orchestra pit probably were constructed of ma- 
sonary to act as retaining walls to hold back the 

^George S. Bryan, The Great American Myth (New 
York: Carrick & Evans, Inc., 1940), p. 174. Testimony 
given at the trial of the conspirators states, according 
to Bryan, "Opening behind the rear door (alley door of 
the theatre) a covered stairway led to the region below 
stage. De Bonay went down these stairs, crossed under 
the stage to the O. P. (Opposite prompter) side .... 
De Bonay followed Booth under the stage and up on 
the other side; Booth then going out of the stage en- 
trance, through the alley (passage) and into Taltavul's 

•'' See Figure 25. John T. Ford drew the original 
sketch in prison some time during April and May 1865. 
The original sketch is in the Ford Family Papers, Mary- 
land Historical Society, Baltimore, Md., and cited here- 
after as "Ford Sketch." The diagrammatic plan was 
probably drawn by a draftsman from the foregoing 
copy. Originial draftsman's sketch with Ewing Papers, 
MSS Division, L.C., and reproduced in Information 
Bulletin, Library of Congress, 19, No. 43 (October 24, 
I960), 611. 

' Ibid. 



Depot OF Washington. 
* Washingtun, D. C, Aucnst 4, 1865. 


SEALED raOPOSALS will be received at this office until 
THl^tlsSDAY, Aiujiist 17, 1865, at 12 o'clock ra., for couverting 
Ford's Theater, in this city, into a fire-proof building. 

Ti)e biiildinfif will be divided into three stories, with cast 
iron posts, wrought iron beama, L^hoeuLxville inako, and brick 
archas and floors. The flooring to bo laid in cement. 

Plane and specificbtions can be seen ou and after August 
6, 18G5, at the oflice of Captain J. H, Crowell, A. Q^ M., cor- 
ner of Eighteenth and G-ste., in this city. 

The proposals sliould state the siiin asked for making the re- 
quired alteration, in accordance with the plans and apecifica- 
tions, and the time at which the work will be completed. 
Time of completion will be taken into conaidaratiou in award- 
ing the contract. 

A bond in the sum of tea thousand dollars, signed by the 
contractor and two sureties, will be required for the faithful 
performance of the contiact, bothaK to the quality of the work 
and materials, and tiie time of its completion. 

The responsibility of the sureties must be certified to by a 
United States District Attorney, to the eft'ect that they are, 
iadividuidly, worth over and above their dabts and liabilities, 
the amount of the r<'qiurod bond, 
j Propo£:*!8 should be nddressod to the tmdJiraJm-'^d, and in- 

I Brevet Major-G«n. and Chief Quartermaster. 

Depot ol Waahington. 

NATIONAL archives) 

Figure 49. Public advertisement for submitting bids to remodel Ford's Theatre, August 4, 1865. 



vfliirt Ojuartfrmastfr's (Office. 

Depot of Washmgton. D C 

Aiiifii^i nil. I— ««.-. 

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11 K N Kll A I. I) KSr It I I'T lOS, 

TIr' tmihliiig Iti hi' ilivi.Ii-.i into (lir<.' ^^u^i«.', witli a frtiiiiw-iv niiiliiiiL' Inn- lii-' ' • "lii.! II Tli' hi-' 

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lliiril. in fic'l !l iiirli.-r liifli. frnni fl'xr f" II.K.t 

l: II I r N u n I: Is 

Till' flr-r llw.r in I..- ^•.^U1l li.v '.1 iii.-li ar<h' -. from 1 t infli \v.ill-. »iili |ir"jvr-ii..ii. iiii'Irr | -. ..■ 

-h'lWIi oil |jliiti. Tllf ljitji«'Iii'-n1 wall- lo rol nn ill-- imtiirnl t-ardi, aii'l t'l liiiYr ii rmiUIip 1 >* iln-ln- wiilr. r. iiii-li- - 
1h-Iiiw lliL- Mirfaci! ofrt-Ilar- 

Wln-rr- till- gr<>uii<l slMjifs. til'- fituii'hiti..ii !■. I" in t- \. I -t. j.- 

Thf K-C'.n'l anil tliinl flnor:. to 111- -tii-i-Mrlt'l l.y 4.1 iii'l' all lie-- tftwii-il till- I'l-i'iii- 'I''!- M" 

llii- ari'li(->9 to Ih^ fiUi-il in with ?(>IiJ iiia-oDrv- 

(tm.- Iar;i'- i-liiiiiiu-y. to \ii: liuiit a» iinlit-ati-.l in [.Inn- with n-<l linvs- 

Thf lir-l- «-i-'in.l an-I tliinl Aooph lii hi- l.avr.I witii tin- hi--t n-'l ;.avinp Iirii-k-.- laiil in .■■■inoiit 
All Ih.- l.rii-ki! in walls anil arehi-» ti> W ^iml liapl hrii-kic- Thi- ].ii-r» anil an-ln- I.. U lai.l in ■ ■ in- in. 
ami till- ivall» in r.-iniiit moimr 'Hi.- li.wi-i- i,c.iii..n i.f «ll tin- ari-lji" to 1«- cluaui-.l ..I! an. I i«.iiil. .1 n|, Hu-li- win i. 
ihr fcntiTM an- takf-n ilown 

Tho (■.■■■iinil .mil lliinl (!'ii»r> n. I.'- Mi]il.' l.y i-ii-t ir'.n n.luniu- an-i r-i-mj-'lii imL- ^ir-i.'- jn-1 1.- ..- 
(.irr .Iniwingjt. 

Thi- rolunm- for tin- first st..rj liiu.-t la- of -n-tainin/ ililily a w.iglil ..f (II», .«ir liumlroil nn.l 
oiglitfi-n Ions, an.l tin- st-con'l .story i-olunins fRtlj -ixfy t'.ns- 

(-Vl ir..n |.latc-», i inchi-s tliii.k liy 1 foot s inchi-s wiuarc. to la plat-cl utnl. r tin- |..«.-i .-olunin-. an.l .a-i 
iron jilatf-s, 1 f.iot -1 inches S"iuurc Ijy 1 i inclK-s thick, under tbc Mi.-'juil -tory coluinn-- 

I'h.j (;inlir» lo bo luado of two [.iuci-- of 12 inoh i'mUr flau(.o.-.l rolh-il ir..n, w.-ighinf 4:! |.i.ijii.l- |«-r 
fool, each l«ir. To In: well IjoltcJ together, with iron l.l.r k- l..lweeu: whijc the gipler- mi-et. ih.- .fii.l- t.. Im 
fu«teiie-.l l»y straps on lioth sitle-i*, well 

The wrought iron l»fa!ii» to h.- II iiich.js ilonlilc llaligcl. weiglnnj :)" |..iiii,.l- n. Ihi- lim-al f.s.T ; i.. 
I»- tieil together hy haps. I inch hy 4 Incli, liookt'il at the emls 

Two r..w-s of these hiils* tej each length of heain- The Iji-anis. at the oj^-ning- ii nt.r -.f tioi.r-. t.. I.. 

fastene'I t'tgetherhy means of roils, running tlirougli with sei--ws ami nuts on tie- e-ml- 

A neat unil strong iron stairway, -I fe.-t ti inches going, with railing to l.'a.l fcni tir-t lo -t-.ry. ami 
a -iillal.le railing arouml ..p.-ning in the ceiiler of seconil and thirj story floors, and around well hole- of -lair- 
Th.- so<ki-t- at th.- lower end of tli - .-'.luinns and in the hottoin of tin- ahaeus, unil the projections <»n Ih,- 

upper ends of the eolunins, ami the |.i..ji .tio he Led plate- to l-c turinsl. in order to insure n wHid hearing 

Tlin-e iron to cut ..II the -id., hiilldings- .|.,or. to he of l,.dh-r ir..ii. .,ii -iiitahl.- fra 

Three iron .I.i'T fniims. Two iron sills, with ri-er-, for the front duors- 
All Ih.' roll.-l lj.aui- and gipler- lo he of the rieenisvill.' make. 

A -kyligl.t- liii'.'ii I'll- on roof; -ash of iron - gla- ; ..f an im-h ll.i.k ; .a.-h li-.-l.t liv.- f.-. 1 l.y I l'".i 
I inch"- wl'h 

M I .-^ t' K I. I. .\ .N I-: I) r .S. 
Hag/ing not I.- ihan '.i wi'l". with . .Ige dr.— rl an.l t lilekn.'-" l log., ar-.uml ..p.-uing in the .sf the :id and ;j.l floor-, an.l aroun.l well li.^l.-s of the slairway- 

T.. make ami put up all tin- iiecc.-.-ary irculeriiig, ami I., clear away all rul.l.i-li fr.un Is.lh in-iili- -niul out- 
-id.: of till! hiiihiing. 

The tlovernment t.. put in the will'low frame-, anil to dn all pl:i-t.riug and paiiillnL'. 

Th.' work 10 1..' .l.iiic in the maiim-r I tlm niat.'riak to I..' ..f the l....t .|uality 

Th. work 1.. 1..' .1. uii.l.-r ih.- ..f tlie Anliil'ct of li.e Ileparlmenl and -uhji-ct lo his approval. 

., D- H. RDCKER, 

.A'^""'' ^^^•- .^^^^:^^wo. 

(national archives) 
Figure 50. (Contract for remodeling Ford's Theatre by Richard Dunbar, August 4, 1865. 









unexcavated earth under the fiont part of the 
theatre, that is, the portion under the orchestra, 
parquet circle and lobby. The footings, columns 
and piers shown on the basement plan probably 
were originally arranged in this manner to sup- 
port the features shown on the 1865 plans and 
photographs.^ Unfortunately there is no proof of 
this arrangement since the original architectural 
plans have not been found to date. Furthermore, 
all vestiges of the condition of the original base- 
ment were removed by the construction contrac- 
tor, Richard Dunbar of New York City, in 1865, 
when he prepared supports for the remodeled 
three story interior which transformed the theatre 
into an office building.^ 

The 1865 photographs also show what appears 
to be vertical boards across the front of the under- 
stage and over the understage retaining wall on 
the orchestra side. Perhaps this could be in- 
terpreted as meaning that there was a stud frame 
wall resting on the masonry retaining wall on 
which to nail the vertical boards. The doors in 
the understage front wall are also shown on these 
1865 photographs.' 


According to a diagrammatic ticket sales plan 
lithographed in 1863,* the seating arrangement of 
the theatre was located symmetrically on either 
side of a longitudinal centerline through the build- 
ing. After several trial and error attempts, it was 
found that the most logical seating arrangement 
which matched the most points of reference in 
1865 photographs fell into a precise geometrical 
pattern.** This pattern fitted neatly into a space 

^ Numerous photographs made in April and May 1865 
by the famous Civil War photographer, Mathew P. Brady 
and his assistants, show many architectural details of the 
interior and exterior of Ford's Theatre. They are of 
exceptionally fine quality for this early period and clearly 
show much of the desired architectural detail. Copies 
af these photographs have been obtained from the fol- 
lowing sources: (a) Library of Congress, Washington, 
D.C., (b) Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 
[llinois, (c) U.S. Army Signal Corps, Brady Collection, 
National Archives, Washington, D.C., and (d) Region 
VI, N.P.S., L.M.C. and F.T.C. 

°See n. 1. 

' See n. 5d. 

' See Figures 27 and 29. 

"See n. 5. 

that coincided with certain references to the seven- 
foot wide Tenth Street lobby,^" and to a doorway 
which provided access to the stage directly behind 
the boxes in the south wall. The existing plaster 
on the wall at this location has been removed and 
the bricked up opening of the door has been 
found. ^' The seating alignment was determined 
by locating these two features in their precise posi- 
tion and then sliding the symmetrically balanced 
seating arrangement east and west along the cen- 
terline of the plan until the seating plan fit into 
only one suitable position according to the images 
on the available photographs.^^ 

A railing separated the orchestra seats from the 
orchestra pit.'^ Gas foot lights with sconces were 
located above the orchestra pit along the front 
edge of the stage.^* 

The measurements of the private boxes were 
obtained from a sketch plan that was made by 
an U.S. army officer for use at the military trial 
of the conspirators." These measurements coin- 
cided with the geometrical seating plan and cor- 
responded with numerous references to the 1865 

" Trial of John H. Surratt in the Criminal Court for 
the District of Columbia, I (Washington: French & 
Richardson, 1867), 560, referred to hereafter as 5'urraM'j 
Trial. During the trial Giflford testified as follows: Q. 
By a Juror. How wide is the space between the outer 
wall of the theatre and the wall on which the clock 
was? A. The width of the vestibule (lobby), which was 
about seven feet; and the wall was three feet thick. 
(The Tenth Street Wall. The clock was mounted on the 
inside wall.) Q. By Mr. Merrick: Give the general 
dimensions, all round, of that vestibule (lobby). A. 
I suppose the length of the vestibule was in the neighbor- 
hood of thirty or thirty-two feet. ... It was about seven 
feet wide as you entered ... in the centre. 

The foregoing statements mean that the lobby was 
wider on the ends than at the center. They also help 
determine the length and width of the lobby and the 
location of the clock. These dimensions check well 
with the spaces on the new reconstructed plans. 

"See n. 2. 

"See n. 5. 

" Ibid. 

" Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, May 20, 1865. 

'^ Measurements of the boxes and stage and a plan 
supporting these measurements was made by Lt. Simon 
P. Currier by order of Colonel Timothy Ingraham, 
Provost Marshall, General Defenses North of Potomac, 
on April 24, 1865. The report and diagram of the stage 
were used during the trial of the conspirators. Original 
in R.G. 153, N.A., Exhibit 48. See also n. 32. 





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Figure 5 1 . Proposal of Architect of Capitol for strengthening west facade of Ford's Theatre, August 4, 1 866. 

photographs." In this sketch plan, however, the 
front of the stage was shown curving the wrong 
way, that is, in toward the back of the stage in- 
stead of out toward the audience. '' 

A four-foot wide passage provided access to the 
theatre stage from Tenth Street through the door 
farthest north on the west elevation of the south 
addition. The passageway was neatly paved, 
boarded and papered. It ran along the south 
wall of the theatre and along the north side of 
Taltavul's combined restaurant and saloon to a 
glass windowed stage door.'^ Another door in the 
south wall of this passageway led directly into 
the saloon.^" 

^"Ihid. and n. 5. 

"Ben Perley Poore (ed.). The Conspiracy Trial for 
the Murder of the President, I (Boston: J. E. Tilton & 
Co., 1865-1866), 463, citing testimony given by Gifford, 
says: "This line on the stage curves out. It is just the 
reverse of what the gentleman who drew this has in- 
tended for it." 

^" Daily National Intelligencer, April 18, 1865. 

" Louis J. Carland stated in his testimony given in 
Surratt's Trial, I, 571, the following in answer to ques- 
tioning by Counsel J. H. Bradley: Q. When you went 
into this saloon (Taltavul's Star Saloon) did you see 
anything of Mr. Booth? A. Mr. Booth was just going 
out of the front door as we entered through the side door. 
(The location of a door in the north wall of the saloon, 
connecting it with the passageway, appears to be clearly 
indicated.) Q. How long did you remain in the saloon? 

The new ground floor plan of the south addi- 
tion was made from several original sources which 
include: photographs from 1865,"° photos of scars 
shown on the south wall of the theatre when the 
south addition was demolished in 1930,-^ Lt. John 
S. Sewell's drawings of 1893,-^ court testimonials 
and biographical novels. An outside stairway 
led from the ground floor to the second floor rear 
of the south addition. ^^ 

The door to the ticket office was located just 
inside of doorway No. 5, according to testimony 

A. Until we had our drink . . . (then) we passed out 
at the front door and stood at the back door of 
the entrance where the attaches of the theatre go 
in. . . . Mr. Gifford and I stood at first a little nearer 
the back door, near the private entrance (the door in 
the north wall of the saloon ) . ( Garland's statements also 
appear to refer to a second door, or an airlock, inside 
of the front door of the passageway leading from Tenth 
Street.) Then we moved more out on the sidewalk 
up to the carriage platform that was in front of the 
theatre." Alexander Gardner's photograph shows this 
platform. See n. 20. 

"° Photograph by Alexander Gardner. 

^ Post-Civil War photographs, L.M.C. 

-On July 25, 1894, Addtl. 2d Lt. John S. Sewell, 
C.E., prepared a report of progress being made on the 
repairs to the Ford Theatre Building for Colonel John 
M. Wilson, C.E., in charge of Public Buildings and 
Grounds. Original in R.G. 42; N-.A. 

^ Bryan, op cit., p. 170. 


Figure 52. Interior of Ford's Theatre building after partial collapse in 1893, showing inside view of original casement 

windows and unexcavated basement. 


/ { u. tc ^-^x^f fi itu^ (^ t/<z. ''V^^-Tt, /v ■ ri^i y^ a-' 

C--*-C^<.-«, I 


(maryi-and historical society) 

Figure 53. Ford's original memo requesting permission to remove proscenium and iron columns 
from Ford's Theatre, September 14, 1865. 











of Harry Clay Ford.** The location of the ticket 
office was verified from the sketch plan drawn 
from memory by John T. Ford." A small window 
was located between the ticket office and the par- 
quet circle.^" 

The locations of the stairway leading from the 
lobby to the dress circle and the stairway to the 
family circle from the Tenth Street doorway No. 
5 were also based on John T. Ford's 1865 sketch 
plan.^^ The exact way these stairways are shown 
on his plan, however, are highly illogical. If built 
in the manner shown they would be impossible to 
use. A feasible stairway design is shown on the 
new plan. This is a workable interpretation of 
what Ford may have been attempting to indicate 
on his drawing.^* 

When the theatre was built, there was no central 
heating system. Niches shown on plans on the 
west side of the rear aisle on either side of the 
theatre were possibly stove niches.^" Chimneys 
which are close at hand could have provided the 
necessary draft. Therefore, these stoves, if they 
existed at all, could have provided some measure 
of heat although not as much as would have been 
necessary to provide the large amount of radiation 
required to heat the theatre comfortably. The 
Ford Theatre in Baltimore, which was built in 
1871 by the same builder, James J. GifTord, also 
contained similar niches. The large number of 
gas light fixtures may have also provided a sup- 
plementary amount of heat for the theatre.^" 

The steps on the new plan of the theatre are 
shown in the same position they occupied as shown 
in the 1865 photographs.^^ The grade along the 
Tenth Street sidewalk has since been lowered. 

The arrangement of the first floor plan of the 
north wing is based on the report by Stanley W. 
McClure, entitled. Historical and Architectural 

"Poore, op. cit.,III, 7. 

'^ Ford sketch, op. cit. 

"H. Clay Ford, stated in a deposition made on April 
20, 1865: "There is a small window looking into the 
theatre. It is large enough for two or three of us to look 
through, one head above the other." See depositions 
in L.A.S. 

" Ford sketch, op. cit. 

^ Ibid. 

"See n. 8. 

1"°See nn. 5, 13. 

Features of Ford's Theatre.^" This report has 
several authentic historical references to the north 
wing which appear to be significant and which 
check with other known factors.^^ 

The doors and windows in the east wall are in 
the same position in which they were shown in an 
1865 newspaper illustration.^'' This interpretation 
is supported by a photograph taken in 1893 im- 
mediately after the internal collapse of a portion of 
the front part of the building. ^^ The east wall was 
rebuilt in 1894 with an entirely different window 
and door arrangement. The door in the east wall, 
through which the assassin, John Wilkes Booth, es- 
caped, swung in with hinges on the left and a 
lock on the right as it was approached from the 
stage. ^® 


In order to obtain good bearing many of the 
features shown on the second floor plan are located 
directly above similar features on the first floor. 
The columns supporting the dress circle are so 
located because the centerlines on which they are 
located coincide with the geometric pattern of the 
ground floor plan below. As a result the center of 
the pattern came to rest exactly fifty feet east of 
the Tenth Street property line on the centerline of 
the building. Thus the center of the geometric 
pattern coincided perfectly with the center of the 

688-^40 O— 63- 

" Stanley W. McClure, Historical and Architectural 
Features Significant in the Restoration or Partial Res- 
toration of Ford's Theatre (Washington: U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior, N.P.S., N.C.P. (1956), passim. 

^Carland again testifies in Poore's, op. cit., I, 55 
"Ritterspaugh was sleeping in what is called the man- 
ager's office. Mr. Giflord's bed is in it as the first floor 
is off the greenroom." The greenroom was actually 
across the hall. William Withers, Jr., states in Ibid., 
p. 200, "As you go up the stairs, there is a star's room 
on the first floor." 

" A. Berghaus drew a pen and ink sketch of the scene 
for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, May 13, 1865. 

==See n. 5. 

*" Joseph B. Stewart, v/ho was in the theatre the night 
the President was assassinated, said under cross-examina- 
tion by Ewing, counsel: "The lock of the door as I ap- 
proached it (from the stage) was on the right hand side, 
the hinges to the left." Pitman, op. cit., p. 80. In 
Poore's, op. cit., I, 70-71, Stewart states: "Entering it 
(the alley stage door) from the outside, it would swing 
back from the left to the right on the inside." 






radii on which the columns were located. These 
radii fan out at twenty-seven degrees and are 
twenty-four feet in length and eleven feet apart. 
The location of these radii was then plotted on the 
new plan after comparing 1865 photographs^" 
and making slight adjustments from assembled 
information.^* Consequently, the rhythm of the 
column locations and spacing was established by 
placing the two center columns equidistant from 
the centerline of the building on the arc of the 
twenty-four foot radii. 

The steps on the side of the dress circle are 
shown projecting at right angles from the north 
and south walls. This is typical of the balcony 
treatment in Ford's Theatre in Baltimore and 
Thalian Hall, Wilmington, North Carolina. ^^ 

A double door in the south wall opened into 
a lounge '"' in the south addition. Entry to the 
lounge was by two steps down from the dress circle. 
This door is clearly shown on the exterior photo- 
graph taken in 1930.*' 

Eight of the ten windows across the Tenth 
Street fagade of the theatre and which provided 
light and air for the dress and family circle lobbies 
were enlarged in 1894. Photographs of 1893 
verify this detail " and all photographs taken 
subsequent to that date show this change.''^ Photo- 

"See n. 5. 

''See nn. 2, 3, 10, 14. 

" Ford's Theatre, Baltimore, Maryland, was designed 
and built by James J. Gifford in 1871, eight years after 
he completed Ford's Theatre, Washington. The two 
theatres possessed many of the same characteristics. 
Thalian Hall, Wilmington, North Carolina, was built 
in 1867 and also contains some of the same character- 
istics as Ford's Theatre, Washington. 

" McClure, op. cit., p. 6, mentions the lounge. Bryan, 
op. cit., p. 169, states: "In February 1864 a lounging 
room connected with the dress circle had been advertised 
for use in the pauses of the entertainment. This room, 
richly furnished, and with all the conveniences and ap- 
pliances of a modem drawing room, was added by cut- 
ting through from the dress circle to the second floor 
of the three story brick building on the south." 

"See n. 21. 

"See n. 20. 

" Sewell, op cit., pp. 1, 6. Excerpts from this re- 
port, relating to the change in size of the windows on 
the west elevation, state: "It was required that the front 
windows on the second and third floors should give the 
same area of opening as those on the first floor, that is 
41.75 square feet." The windows were therefore 
enlarged to meet this figure. 

graphs taken after 1894 show that two windows in 
the south bay remain the same size as originally 
constructed in 1863. These two windows were 
used as a guide in redrawing and relocating the 
other eight windows in the plan on the front of 
the theatre." 

The only available plan of the dress circle is a 
diagrammatic ticket sales plan ^^ similar to the one 
lithographed in 1863 for the ground floor.*" Al- 
though this plan does not show stove niches in 
the dress circle, it is conjectural that such niches 
may have also existed in the dress circle plan 
directly above those on the first floor. There is 
ample evidence for locating them here: space is 
sufBcient, chimneys are close at hand for stoves, 
and there is no other way to supply heat to this 
part of the building. In support of this conjecture, 
it is interesting to note that Ford's Theatre in 
Baltimore, which was constructed after Ford's 
Theatre in Washington, had niches in this ap- 
proximate location. Dressing rooms were located 
on the second floor of the north wing.*^ 


The size and shape of the family circle on the 
third floor of the theatre was determined from 
1865 photographs,*^ the amount and disposition 
of space in which it had to fit, and the geometric 
pattern of the lower floors. The 1865 photo- 
graphs *" definitely show that wooden benches were 
used in the family circle. These wooden benches 
are almost identical in appearance to those used 
in the second balcony in Thalian Hall.^° 

Space e.xists for a room in the northwest corner 
of the third floor lobby. Although there is no ref- 
erence to such a room in any of the historical 
notes, it might be conjectured that a room was 
situated here for purely architectural and struc- 
tural reasons. The stairwell space on the south- 
west comer would be balanced and a wall from 

"See n. 21. 

« Copy iri F.T.C. 

"See n. 8. 

" In Poore, op. cit., I, 200, William Withers, Jr., the 
leader of the orchestra states, "Upstairs were the dress- 
ing rooms for the actors." 

"See n. 5. 

" Ibid. 

"See n. 39. 


floor to ceiling in this area would not only improve 
the appearance of the inverted ceiling plan but 
would also strengthen it. A room in this location 
would also serve several practical purposes: it 
could be used as a rest room, a lounge, an ofl!ice, 
an usher's room, or for storage. Possibly the fail- 
ure to mention a room in this part of the theatre 
was due to its remote location from the significant 
events of the evening of the assassination. For 
these reasons the architect has assumed that a 
room existed at this location and one is therefore 
included on the new plan of the third floor. The 
third floor of the north wing probably contained 
dressing rooms. 

The fourth floor of the north wing is about on 
the same level as the third floor lobby of the family 
circle. It contained a small carpenter shop and 
the rather large dressing room of Louis J. Garland, 
the costumer for Ford's Theatre." 

The exact height of the paint-bridge and fly- 
galleries is difficult to establish as the east wall has 
been completely rebuilt since 1893 and no wall 
scars remain. Furthermore, since there are no 
known records of any exact plans of the paint- 
bridge and fly-galleries, the architect has based 
all locations and elevations shown on the new 
plans on court testimony. 

Therefore, according to Lamb's testimony, the 
location of the paint-bridge would be at an eleva- 
tion of 66.63 feet." According to the testimony of 
John Miles, a fly-boy, the fly-galleries were three 
and a half stories above the stage at an elevation 
of 55 or 56 feet. On the new plans the elevation 

(photo by abbie rowe) 

Figure 54. Detail of lintel and original casement window 
of south bay. 

^Benn Pitman (comp.), The Assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and the Trial of the Conspirators. (New 
York: Moore, Wilstach & Baldwin, 1865), p. 108. Louis 
J. Garland, the costumer, stated during cross-examina- 
tion, "We brought lumber up to the top dressing rooms 
for shelving for my wardrobe through the window, to the 
fourth story." Garland also states in Poore, op. cit., I, 
57, "The carpenter shop is attached to the theatre the 
same as my wardrobe is." 

"-James Lamb, artist and scenic painter of Ford's 
Theatre, testified in Surratt's Trial, I, 588, "It (the paint 
bridge) would be 36' or 37' (elevation 67' or 68') above 
the stage floor. ... It occupies a position in the rear 
of the theatre facing the rear wall . . . and it is open 
.... There is a mere railing (probably a pin rail) 
at the back .... I had a . . . boy who was em- 
ployed in raising the paint frame up and down." 


of the fly-galleries is set at 55.80 feet. At this 
height the fly-boy could have looked out of the 
top of a double hung window that was half above 
the fly-galleries and half below and see Booth es- 
cape on the horse that was waiting in the alleyway 
below. '^ Most probably there was also a scenery 
slot along the eastwall in the floor of the paint 
bridge through which to slide a scenery frame. 

The fourth floor of the north wing is about half 
way between the fly-galleries and the paint-bridge 
in elevation. It is assumed that a small stoop was 
required on the theatre side of the doorway of 
the north wing to permit ready access to the paint 
bridge and fly-galleries by means of two short 
flights of steps, one going up and one leading 

The gridiron was probably suspended partly 
from the underside of the lower chords of the 
roof trusses and partly from the underside of the 
paint bridge to allow for complete coverage of 
the open part of the stage below. '*■' Such cover- 
age is necessary in order to properly distribute 
the scenery and make full use of the stage. '^^ 

The third floor of the south addition was known 
to contain the rooms of H. Clay Ford and James 
R. Ford.'^" A stairway also led up to the third floor 

^ John Miles, one of the fly boys, testified in Pitman, 
op. cit., p 81, The flies were "about three and a half 
stories (up) from the stage .... I was at the win- 
dow pretty nearly all the time. From the time Booth 
brought the horse until he went away, and from the 
time I looked out of the window, John Peanuts was lying 
on the bench holding the horse ; I did not see any one 
else holding it." 

" Harold Burris-Myer and Edward C. Cole, Scenery 
for the Theatre, Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1951, p. 
286, gives following definition of a gridiron: "The grid- 
iron stands from three to ten feet below the stage roof. 
(In the case of the Ford Theatre, this would mean the 
lower chords of the roof trusses.) It consists of beams 
(steel in modern installations) running from the back 
proscenium wall to the back wall of the stage. The 
beams are set in pairs ten to eighteen inches apart. Set 
across the openings are left blocks. Over the be^ms is 
laid a metal or wooden grill on which men may work 
in safety. Lines (ropes) are run from batteries, sand- 
bags (for counterbalancing scenery) or scenery suspended 
below the gridiron." 

'-^ Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, May 20, 1865, 
also n. 5. 

'=" Bryan, 0/1. C!*., p. 169. 

from the second floor below as shown by wall scars 
on the 1930 photograph" and the 1893 


The ventilator openings are shown on the archi- 
tectural drawings in a position which permits 
them to be aligned with the ventilators on the roof 
that are shown on the 1865 photographs.^" These 
ventilators are outstanding architectural features 
and no doubt were responsible for the compli- 
mentary remarks made in the contemporary press 
on how well the building was ventilated. '''' The 
press mentions a dome in the ceiling.*^ A sketched 
illustration also shows a rather flat dome which 
is more in the shape of an inverted saucer. Its 
vertical dimension is dictated by the lower chord 
of the roof trusses and by the height of the 
proscenium. A circular pattern appears in the 
center of the dome and could be interpreted as a 
ventilator opening. It is well decorated and prob- 
ably made of compressed and perforated sheet 
metal. "^ It is part of the ornamentation of the 
ceiling for the entire dome as well as the rest of 
the ceiling was ornately decorated."' A con- 
temporary account states that "the dome will be 
finished splendidly in fresco varied with figures in 
basso and alto-relievo." "'' 

In support of this arrangement, a ventilator 
opening in the middle of the dome above the audi- 
ence is shown in an architectural book of the 
tirne."^ It is also logical to assume that a ventila- 

■■'See n. 21. 

'^See n. 22. 

"See nn. 5 and 20. 

"■The Daily Morning Chronicle (D.C.), August 28, 
1863, stated that Ford's Theatre was "the coolest and 
best ventilated place of public amusement in this city." 

"The Daily National Republican (D.C.), July 31, 

'-Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, May 20, 1865. 
Sagendorg's Metal Ceiling and Sidewall Finish Catalog, 
20th Series, 1869-1893 (Phila.: Penn Iron Roofing and 
Corrugating Co., Ltd., 1893), p. 41. Catalog of Artistic 
Steel Ceilings, 17th ed. (Chicago: Friedley and Vos- 
hardt, 1904), p. 131, plate no. 5118. Originals in 
Library of Congress. 

" Leslie's, op. cit. 

"Daily National Republican, July 31, 1863. 

*" James Fergusson, History of Modern Styles of Archi- 
tecture (London, England, 1862), p. 461. 



f ^ 1 


<- otivfiiy i^o^is 



^/fiaiyff "'I'M ■«' 3Drj 








tor opening existed on the centerline of the flat 
ceiHng area in the family circle lobby because a 
large ventilator was located directly above on the 


Nine chimneys appear on the roof plan. Their 
locations are shown in photographs of 1865,'^' 
and the 1893 drawings."* The distribution of 
chimneys indicates how the theatre may have been 
heated for they could easily have provided ade- 
quate draft for stoves which may have been located 
in various sections of the theatre. Some of the 
chimneys have been completely removed from 
the existing structure ; others are still in evidence 
under the eaves. 

Twelve hatches, six on each side, were located 
about half way down the north and south slopes 
of the roof. Three large ventilators were formerly 
on the ridge. The lookouts, projecting as they 
did in an 1865 photograph, are shown together 
with the parapet wall and the eaves of the gable 
end on the Tenth Street edge of the roof. 


The west elevation as indicated on the Locraft 
engineering drawings "" has been referred to at 
various times as the Tenth Street elevation and 
the front elevation. For the purpose of the present 
plans these terms are considered identical. 

The drawings show the front elevation of the 
theatre as it appeared in the 1865 photographs.'" 
Inasmuch as the activities of the south addition 
were so closely related to the functions of the 
theatre, its elevation will be included here. The 
drawing shows the relative position of the two 
buildings and how the various architectural fea- 
tures and precise conditions at the joint line fit 
together. The west elevation of the north wing, 
because of its location, is shown with dashed lines 
for normally it would be screened by buildings in 
front of it along Tenth Street. 

The grade shown has been determined from 
the 1865 photographs." The front steps of the 
theatre are ^hown as they appeared in 1865."- 
Ford's sketch plan" and photographs of 1865 
show doors across the front on the first floor.''' 

Eight of the ten windows on the second and 
third floors of the front elevation were enlarged in 
1894.'^ The two windows in the family circle 
stairwell or south bay remained as they originally 
were in 1865. Photographs taken before and after 
1893 "" and a report of 1894 confirm this observa- 
tion. The stairwell windows were used as models 
to show the original design of the windows of the 
west elevation." 

When the theatre was opened in 1863, the 
cornice and pediment was unfinished. The pedi- 
ment and cornice lookouts are shown exposed as 
they were in 1865. The outer finished millwork 
had not been added to the structure at that time 
and this distinguishing feature of the building 
was completed after the government took posses- 
sion of it.'* The circular window in the center of 
the pediment was not built in until after govern- 
ment ownership took place. '^ 

The approximate size of the large ventilators on 
the ridge of the roof is shown on this elevation ac- 
cording to the 1865 photographs.*" Since the 
large volume of fresh air required for a theatre 
audience was no longer needed when the theatre 
was converted into an office building, the large 
ventilators were removed and smaller ones sub- 
stituted as shown in photographs of 1894 and 
1961.*^ The roof hatches were sealed over with 
shingles. *- 

"See n. 5. 
" Ibid. 

"Sewell, op. cit. 

'"' See n. 1 and Locraft Engineer Drawings, Sheet No. 
N.C. P. 85.11-55-8. 
™See nn. 5, 20. 

"See n. 20. 

" Ibid. 

" Ibid. 

" See nn. 3, 8. For purposes of clarification the front 
doorways along the Tenth Street elevation will be num- 
bered from 1-5, starting with doorway No. 1 being the 
farthest to the north. 

" See n. 20. 

"See nn. 5, 20. 

" Scwell, op. cit. See Figure 54. Benjamin F. Simms, 
supervisor of guards of memorials and historic sites, 
N.C.R., N.P.S., appears in the photo. 

™See nn. 5, 20. 

"/fciV and n. 21. 

»°See n. 20. 

^'Ibid, n. 5. 

*=See n. 21. 




The north elevation has been drawn in accord- 
ance with the Locraft Engineering Report, 1865 
photographs taken from F Street, NW., and the 
engineering report of the War Department. This 
latter was prepared in 1878 with accompanying 
specifications and drawings showing the strength- 
ening and underpinning of the wall of the north 
elevation."" The roof features shown on the 
drawing of the new north elevation are similar 
to those of the new south elevation. Their loca- 
tion corresponds to features shown in the 1865 


The rear or east elevation faces the public alley- 
way to the rear of the theatre.*' On the new 
drawing the architectural features have been com- 
piled from several sources of information : photo- 
graphs taken in 1893 at the time of the partial 
collapse of the building; a sketched newspaper il- 
lustration ; *" and court testimonials made durmg 
the trial of the conspirators.*' A large sliding 
door that was in the center of the east wall and 
through which scenery was moved directly onto 
the stage was indicated in two places. An early 
newspaper sketched illustration, published shortly 
after the assassination,** and the brick segments 
of an arch over the door are in evidence on an 
1893 photograph taken in the alley shortly after 
the internal collapse. When the War Department 
occupied the building, the large sliding door be- 
came useless and it was bricked up as shown m 
the 1893photograph.*=' 

The windows in the east wall are located as 
accurately as possible from 1893 photographs,^" 

'"Letter from Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln 
Casey, C.E. to Honorable George W. McCrary, Secre- 
tary of War, Washington, October 22, 1878. Original 
in R.G. 77, N.A. Copy in F.T.C. This letter com- 
pletely describes the work of underpinning the north 
wall and includes some crude drawings. 

"See n. 20. 

"^ Locraft Engineer Drawing, Sheet No. N.C.P. 85.1 1- 


*" Berghaus, op. cit. 
"See nn. 2, 51, 53. 
^ Berghaus, op. cit. 
"See n. 21. 
•» Ibid. 

Lt. Sewell's drawings of 1893," newspaper 
sketches,''- and court testimony.*"^ The stairways 
arc placed where John T. Ford located them in 
his rough sketch,"'' and as shown on the plan 
drawn by Lt. Simon P. Currier."'* Nothing is 
known about the features or wall treatment on 
the gable end in 1865. 

The original east wall was built ten inches out 
of plumb according to findings of U.S. Army en- 
gineers and Lt. Sewell's drawing.^" After the 
collapse of 1893, the entire east wall was demol- 
ished and rebuilt with more rigid engineering 
controls. The present wall has no resemblance 
to the original wall built by James J. Gifford in 
1863. For instance, the 1893 wall brickwork is 
American bond whereas the 1865 brickwork was 
running bond. By comparing old photographs "' 
and sketches,"* the 1865 and 1893 fenestration 
and door locations were found to be quite different 
than they now are. The new drawing shows the 
features as they were in the original wall. 


The south addition or the "Star Saloon" as it 
was known is shown on the south elevation of the 
theatre."" The disposition of some of the parts 
of the south addition have been determined in 
various ways : by scars left on the exterior face of 
the south wall of the theatre building; "° by cer- 
tain historical notes;"' by court testimonials;'"^ 
from ncwspajser articles of the period ; '"^ and 
photographs of the 1930 demolition."* Plaster 
has been removed in certain places on the interior 
of the present building to derive additional evi- 
dence in support of these findings. Since 1930 the 
entire south wall has been parged with cement 

" Sewell, op. cit. 

"- Berghaus, op. cit. 

"See nn. 51, 53. 

"* Ford sketch, op. cit. 

'" Currier, op. cit. 

■^ Sewell, op. cit. 

"'See n. 5. 

" Berghaus, op. cit. 

^ Bryan, op. cit., passim. 

"»■ McClure, op. cit. 

"' Stewart, op. cit. 

^■"See n. 16. 

"» McClure, op. cit. 

"•See n. 21. 
























plaster to waterproof it. The roof features shown 
have been previously described under "Roof 
Plan." 1°= 


The two drawings of the longitudinal and the 
cross sections may be discussed together since they 
show many of the same features but obviously from 
a different angle. 

The horizontal dimensions were determined by 
the new floor plans. War Department specifica- 
tions of 1865 state that the first floor was to be 
raised seven and one-half inches."** A datum for 
the new drawings is thus provided by subtracting 
seven and one-half inches from the existing floor 
level. The datum on these new drawings is 
29.18 feet on the lobby floor as previously stated. 

The level of the stage floor was determined by 
relating it to the 30.00 foot alley elevation in the 
rear of the theatre. The slope of the stage floor 
towards the audience is clearly visible on 1865 
photographs ^"^ and is mentioned by W. J. Fer- 
guson."** The sloping of the stage floor towards 
the audience is also typical theatrical construction 
since it gives the audience a better view of stage 

After establishing the elevation of the stage 
and lobby, it was possible to project a sloping 
floor which established a proper relationship to 
the orchestra and parquet circle. This projec- 
tion was confirmed by architectural books on the 
design of theatres of the f>eriod which describe 
methods of locating sightlines and establishing 
theatre floor slopes."" Measurements taken at 
Thalian Hall in Wilmington, N.C. and at the 
Ford Theatre in Baltimore were also useful in pro- 
viding good comparative dimensions on which to 
base a fairly reliable orchestra and parcjuet circle 

The orchestra pit which is seen on 1865 photo- 
graphs '" and sketches made after the assassina- 

™See n. 1. 

^°"See n. S. 

"^ Ibid. 

"° W. J. Ferguson, / Saw Booth Shoot Lincoln (Bos- 
ton: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1930), pp. 9, 16. 

™ W. H. Berkmire, American Theatres (New York, 

""See n. 39. 

"^See n. 5. 

tion show the plan of the orchestra pit in its en- 
tirety. After having determined the stage and 
parquet circle elevation, it was possible to es- 
tablish the orchestra pit floor elevation in relation 
to the level of the floor of the orchestra. Suitable 
sightlines were thus established by which the or- 
chestra conductor could lead the singers on stage 
and the musicians in the orchestra pit without ob- 
structing the view of the audience. Access to the 
orchestra pit from the basement through doors in 
the face of the understage wall is typical arrange- 
ment with most theatres. Similar means of access 
was used in Ford's Theatre in Baltimore and 
Thalian Hall in Wilmington. 

A number of 1865 photographs of the presi- 
dential box have been used to aid in replanning 
this portion of the theatre. These photographs 
were also used to help determine the height of the 
dress circle (first balcony) and the family circle 
(second balcony). 

The relationship between the height of the arch- 
ways on the inside of the Tenth Street wall di- 
rectly determined to a certain extent the elevations 
of the dress circle and indirectly the height of the 
family circle above. After determining the high- 
est and lowest step on which the upper and lower 
balcony seats were located, the height of the in- 
termediate steps was determined by regular pro- 
gression. The lines of sight to the stage from the 
audience for the entire theatre was established 
by relating this information to the balcony slope. 
The curvature of the dress circle at the railing 
rises by gradual incline from the outside walls 
to the high point on the centerline of the the- 
atre. The placement of the columns and girders 
supporting both balconies can be seen in the 1865 
photographs. These photographs also show the 
wooden benches of the family circle. The high 
backs on the rear rows indicate that space for 
standing room may have been behind them. The 
ceiling above the auditorium features the flat dome 
previously described under the "Reflected Ceiling 


The details are largely self-explanatory. Any 
details shown on the drawings which are not 
documented are conjectural and judgment was 
used to design them in the taste of the period. 














S ° i: 



















■ it 

I " c 









688-^40 O— 63- 





1 ^^ 












-Wa-.' " 












9 ^ 






y > 3 









Figure 55. (Upper) Contemporary painting by Chas. Gulager and (lower) sketch by A. Berghaus of interior of presidential 

box at time of assassination. 




The restored theatre will be refurnished as com- 
pletely and as accurately as the evidence provided 
by completed historical and architectural research 
indicates. Among the more important references 
which will enable such a plan to be carried out 
are the following: Brady and other photographs, 
sketches and drawings made shortly after April 
14, 1865; newspaper articles; official reports, in- 
cluding trial testimony and the depositions made 
by the employees of the theatre; and samples of 
drapery, curtain materials and wallpaper now 
in the Lincoln Museum collections. In addi- 

tion are the large sofa, engraving of Washington, 
and flags which embellished the President's box. 
Taken in chronological order, the following fur- 
nishings and materials will be required aside from 
anything purchased specifically for the restoration 
of the structure : 

( 1 ) For the lobby, one ( 1 ) wall clock. 

(2) For the ticket office: four (4) chairs, work- 
ing tables or desks for the ticket sellers, and one 
( 1 ) treasurer's desk. 

( 3 ) For seating, approximately 1 ,074 individual 
cane-bottomed chairs will be required: 602 in 
the orchestra and parquet; 422 in the dress circle, 
and from 48 to 80 for the eight boxes which ac- 

FiGURE 56. Original Treasury 
Guards flag, Washington en- 
graving and sofa from presiden- ■ 
tial box on exhibit in Lincoln | 

Tia333aa2dI7 / 

(photo by GEORGE OLEs) 




Figure 57. Rocker in which Lincoki was shot. 


(photo by GEORGE OLES) 

Figure 58. Original French clock from greenroom of Ford's Theatre, 1865. 

commodated from six (6) to ten (10) persons 
each. High-backed benches were used in the 
family circle to seat approximately 676 persons. 
Thus this total figure of 1,700 for the theatre's 
seating capacity, aside from the boxes, is based 
on the statement of John T. Ford published in the 
Washington Post of June 11, 1893, and the un- 
published doctoral dissertation of John Ford 
Sollers referred to in the main body of this report. 
This figure of 1,700 appears to be more realistic 
than contemporary newspaper accounts of 1865 
which stated the seating capacity to be between 
2,000 and 3,000 persons. In addition the seating 
capacity of the orchestra, parquet and dress circle 
has been verified by actual count of the scats shown 
on the diagrammatic ticket sales charts shown in 
the present report as Figures 27 and 29. Further- 

more, the photos included in the same section in- 
dicate clearly the variations in the design of the 
different types of chairs used throughout the thea- 
tre. Figures 28 and 31 also give the architects 
sufficient data to design the type of wooden 
benches used in the family circle. 

The special furniture for the President's box 
should include the crimson velvet covered sofa 
(now in the possession of the Lincoln Museum), 
the walnut rocker in which the President sat (now 
owned by the Henry Ford Museum and Green- 
field Village, Dearborn, Michigan), and two ad- 
ditional crimson velvet covered heavy straight 
backed chairs whose design is clearly shown in Fig- 
ure 31. Embellishments for the historic repre- 
sentation of the final scene should include the 
Washington engraving, the original blue Treas- 


ury Department flag (both of which are in the 
Lincoln Museum collection), and four American 
flags, two on staffs to decorate the sides of the box 
and two arranged as bunting on the railings as 
shown in Figure 34. The style and design of the 
yellow satin draperies and Nottingham lace cur- 
tains which completed the exterior decor of the 
President's box, and of the figured crimson wall- 
paper on the interior, can be easily verified from 
the composite Brady photo (Figure 43) of the 
entire stage. Samples of these materials are also 
on deposit in the Lincoln Museum. It is also rea- 
sonable to assume that the draperies, curtains and 
wallpaper of the other boxes were similar in color, 
style and design to that of the President's box. 
Furthermore, Turkish carpeting most probably 
covered the floors of all the boxes. A movable 
partition, 3 inches in thickness and seven feet in 
height, covered with the same figured wallpaper 
as appears on the walls of the boxes, should be 
included in boxes 7 and 8. This partition is clearly 
shown in the background of Figure 34. 

Although it would seem reasonable to presume 
that carpeting was used on the aisles of the ground 
floor in the orchestra and parquet and the aisles 
of the dress circle and its lobby, no evidence has 
been uncovered to support this view. The fore- 
stage beneath the proscenium was carpeted, how- 
ever, since contemporary accounts indicate that 
it was torn when the assassin jumped to the stage 
from the President's box. 


A tentative furnishing plan based on the in- 
formation derived from contemporary sources as 
indicated above will be drafted upon completion 
of the architectural drawings. Precise measure- 
ments for locating and placing chairs throughout 
the theatre have been established by the Architec- 
tural Branch, Region VI, National Park Service, 
and will be used when required. The original sofa 
on which the occupants of the President's box sat 
is in the custody of the Lincoln Museum. A pre- 
cise drawing of the walnut rocking chair in which 
the President sat can be made from the original 
in case the chair is not donated to the restored 
theatre. It is also proposed that all stage equip- 
ment in addition to the gridiron and other stage 
paraphernilia and apparatus such as ropes, belays, 
etc., will be incorporated in the structure accord- 
ing to the best information available from theatres 
of the period. 


It is proposed that the financing of the refur- 
nishing of the theatre as it existed on the night of 
April 14, 1865, be derived from a portion of the 
funds to be appropriated for the full restoration of 
the structure, the funds for which should include 
cost of construction, equipment, and furnishings. 


APPENDIX A— Lincoln at Ford's Theatre^ 




28 May, Sun. 

30 Oct., Fri. 
9 Nov., Mon. 

14 Nov., Mon. 

15 Nov., Tues. 
17 Dec, Thurs. 

8 Apr., Fri. 
19 June, Sun. 
19 Dec, Mon. 

14 Apr., Good 

Musical Concert 

Ford's Alheneum 

Ford's Theatre 

"Fanchon, the Cricket" 

"The Marble Heart" 

"Henry IV" 


"The Merry Wives of Windsor" 

"King Lear" 
Sacred Concert 
Treasury Ball and Concert 


'Our American Cousin" 

Clara Louise Kellogg 

Maggie Mitchell 


J. W. Hackett 



Edwin Forrest 

Harry Hawk 
Laura Keene 

' Lincoln attended performances at Ford's Theatre on the dates shown. Miers, op. cit.. Vol. Ill, passim. 

FORD'S NEW theatrk: 

Tenth Street, near E. 

John T. Ford Proprietor and Manager. 

(Also of HoUiday street Theatre, Baltimore.) 

Farewell benefit and last niRht but one of 

For the Farewf U C'nmpliinentarv B'uefit ot Miaa Mnggie 
Mitchell will be prtseuted fur \.h^ tiii»l tiu.e th« exiiUi- 
site douiestic drama in r. acta, entiiled 

F A N C H O N, /Ae Cricl.ft. 

FanrlioM Misj Miigj^'ie Mitchell 

To-it)orr<iw (Satindhy) KveMinK 31et, night 

pcsitively of Mi:<8 MnKcii- Mitchell't. .-ngHg'iuent. 


Firot appearance of the jouiig and distinguia'.ied tragediau 


EPDuring this eiigngeuieiit all ot ihe celebrated Shakes- 

p-)rean Tragedies will be produced. 


Dre.ip Circle 50 cents I Oroli^atra Chairs 75 (lenta 

Faujily (Jircle i.'5 cent* I CrivalB Boxes I'll and »(> 

cot as— It No eitra ohnrge lor reserved seats. « 

(library of congress) 
Figure 59. Program of Maggie Mitchell night Lincoln attended Ford's Theatre. 


Tenth Streety near E, 

John T. Ford Proprietor and Manager. 

(Also of HoUiday street Theatre, Baltimore.) 


Last Week of 


And Messrs. CHA8. WHEATLEIGH, 




Phidias.. ? Hjy J wiites Booth. 

Duchalet S 

Su Margeau \ -.^^-Mr. Harry Pearson. 


Dress Circle 50 cents I Orchestra Chairs ... -75 cents 

Family Circle 25 cents I Private Boxes - - . -$10 and $6 

Box Sheet now open, where seats can be secured 
without extra charge. nov 4 — 

(library of congress) 
Figure 6o. Program of John Wilkes Booth night Lincoln attended Ford's Theatre. 


APPENDIX B— List of Productions at Ford's 



(August 1863 to April 1865) 



27 Au^., Thurs. 

"The Naiad Queen" 

Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Bishop 

28 Aug., Fri. 



29 Aug., Sat. 



30 Aug., Sun. 


31 Aug., Mon. 

"The Naiad Queen" 

Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Bishop 

1 Sept., Tues. 



2 Sept., Wed. 



3 Sept., Thurs. 



4 Sept., Fri. 



5 Sept., Sat. 



6 Sept., Sun. 


7 Sept., Mon. 

"The Naiad Queen" 

Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Bishop 

8 Sept., Tues. 



9 Sept., Wed. 



10 Sept., Thurs. 



11 Sept., Fri. 



12 Sept., Sat. 



13 Sept., Sun. 


14 Sept., Mon. 

"The Naiad Queen" and "The 


Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Bishop 


Charles Wheatleigh 

15 Sept., Tues. 



16 Sept., Wed. 

"The Naiad Queen" and "A Morn 




17 Sept., Thurs. 



18 Sept., Fri. 

"The Naiad Queen" and "A Model 

of a 



19 Sept., Sat. 



20 Sept., Sun. 


21 Sept., Mon. 

"The Little Barefoot" 

Maggie Mitchell 

22 Sept., Tues. 



23 Sept., Wed. 



24 Sept., Thurs. 



25 Sept., Fri. 



26 Sept., Sat. 



27 Sept., Sun. 


28 Sept., Mon 

"Fanchon the Cricket" 

Maggie Mitchell 

29 Sept., Tues. 



30 Sept., Wed. 



1 Oct., Thurs. 



2 Oct., Fri. 



3 Oct., Sat. 



4 Oct., Sun. 


5 Oct., Mon. 

"Fanchon the Cricket" 

Maggie Mitchell 

6 Oct., Tues. 



7 Oct., Wed. 

"Satan in Paris" 


8 Oct., Thurs. 

"Satan in Paris" and "My Precious Betsy" 

Maggie Mitchell 

Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Bishop 

1 Evening Star, August 1863 to April 1865. 
early edition of paper on day of play. 

Theatre advertisements generally appeared in previous day's paper or in 







9 Oct., 


10 Oct., 


11 Oct., 


12 Oct., 


13 Oct., 


14 Oct., 


15 Oct., 


16 Oct., 


17 Oct., 


18 Oct., 


19 Oct., 


20 Oct., 


21 Oct., 


22 Oct., 


23 Oct., 


24 Oct., 


25 Oct., 


26 Oct., 


27 Oct., 


28 Oct. 


29 Oct., 


30 Oct., 


31 Oct., 


1 Nov. 

, Sun. 

2 Nov. 

, Mon. 

3 Nov. 

, Tues. 

4 Nov. 

, Wed. 

5 Nov. 

, Thurs. 

6 Nov. 


7 Nov. 

, Sat. 

8 Nov. 

, Sun. 

9 Nov. 

, Mon. 

10 Nov. 

, Tues. 

11 Nov. 

, Wed. 

12 Nov. 

, Thurs. 

1 3 Nov. 

, Fri. 

14 Nov. 

,• Sat. 

15 Nov. 

, Sun. 

16 Nov. 

, Mon. 

17 Nov. 

, Tues. 

18 Nov. 

, Wed. 

"Katy O'Shiel" and "The Pet of the Petti- 



"Fanchon the Cricket" 

"Margot, the Poultry Dealer," "The Four 
Sisters" and "My Precious Betsy" 

"The Bonnie Fishwife" and "The Little 

"The Pet of the Petticoats" and "Margot, 

the Poultry Dealer" 
"The Little Barefoot" and "The Four Sis- 
"The Little Barefoot" and "Toodles" 

"The Pearl of Savoy, or A Mother's Prayer" 

"The Pearl of Savoy, or A Mother's Prayer" 
"The Little Barefoot" and "The Little 

"The Wept of the Wish-Ton-Wish" and 

"Margot, the Poultry Dealer" 
"The Pearl of Savoy, or A Mother's Prayer" 
"Fanchon the Cricket" 

"Richard III" 

"The Apostate" and "Family Jars" 
"The Robbers, or The Forest of Bohemia," 

concluding with a Comedy Farce 
"A Lady of Lyons, or Love and Pride" and 

"The Secret, or The Hole in the Wall" 
"The Merchant of Venice" and "Taming of 

the Shrew" 
"Richard III, or The Battle of Bosworth 


"The Marble Heart" 

"Romeo and Juliet" 
"Richard III" 

"The Robbers, or The Forest of Bohemia" 
"The Nobleman's Daughter" and "In and 

Out of Place" 
"Noemie, the Foster Sister," "A Day Too 

Late" and "The Youth Who Never Saw a 

"The Governor's Wife" and "A Day Too 


Maggie Mitchell 


Maggie Mitchell 
J. T. Fannon 
Maggie Mitchell 
C. B. Bishop 
Maggie Mitchell 


Maggie Mitchell 
C. B. Bishop 

Maggie Mitchell 






Maggie Mitchell 















Emma Webb 
Ada Webb 






27 Nov., Fri. 

28 Nov., Sat. 

29 Nov., Sun. 

30 Nov., Mon. 

1 Dec, Tues. 

2 Dec, Wed. 

3 Dec, Thurs. 

19 Nov., Thurs. "Nicholas Nickleby" and "In and Out of 


20 Nov., Fri. "A Husband at Sight," "Catching an 

Heiress" and "The Manager's Daughter" 

21 Nov., Sat. "The Market Girl of Paris" and "The Litde 


22 Nov., Sun. Closed 

23 Nov., Mon. "Po-Ca-Hon-Tas" and "The Little Gypsies" 

24 Nov., Tues. "Po-Ca-Hon-Tas" and "Noemie, or The 

Foster Sister" 

25 Nov., Wed. "Po-Ca-Hon-Tas, or Ye Gentle Savage" and 

"The Market Girl of Paris" 

26 Nov., Thurs. Thanksgi\ing Day 

2 Grand Performances 

Afternoon and Evening 

"Po-Ca-Hon-Tas" and "Actress of all Work" 

"Po-Ca-Hon-Tas" and "The Wandering 


"The Invisible Prince, or The Isle of Tran- 
quil Delights" and "Nicholas Nickleby" 

"The Invisible Prince, or The Isle of Tran- 
quU Delights" and "Green Bushes, or Ire- 
land and America 100 Years Ago" 

"The Invisible Prince, or The Isle of Tran- 
quil Delights" 

"The Maid ^Vith the MUking Pail," "The 
Invisible Prince" and "Anthony and 

4 Dec, Fri. "The Colleen Ba-%vn," "The Four Sisters" 

and "Nan, the Good For Nothing" 

5 Dec, Sat. "The Colleen Bawn," "The Dav After the 

Wedding" and "Toodles". 

6 Dec, Sun. Closed 

7 Dec, Mon. "The Lakes of Killamev" and 


8 Dec, Tues. "The Lakes of Killamev" and "The Invisible 

Prince, or The Isle of Tranquil Delights" 

9 Dec, Wed. "The CoUeen Bawn" and "The Nobleman's 


10 Dec, Thurs. "The Colleen BawTi," "Opposite Neighbors" 

and "A Dav Too Late" 

11 Dec, Fri. "Beauty and the Beast" and "The Post of 


12 Dec, Sat. "The Colleen Bawn," "A Day Too Late" 

and "The Four Sisters" 

13 Dec, Sim. Closed 

14 Dec, Mon. "Henr\- IV" 

15 Dec, Tues. Same 

16 Dec, Wed. "Merr\- Wives of Windsor" 

17 Dec, Thurs. Same 

18 Dec, Fri. "Man of the Worid, or The Politician," 

"Mons. Mallet, or The Post Office Mis- 
take" and "My Precious Betsy" 

19 Dec, Sat. "Henry IV" and "Dominique, the Deserter" 

20 Dec, Sun. Closed 

21 Dec, Mon. "Married Life" and "The People's Lawyer" 

Emma Webb 
Ada Webb 


Emma Webb 
Ada Webb 



Emma Webb 
Ada Webb 



Emma Webb 
Ada Webb 





James H. Hackett 






John E. Owens 





22 Dec, Tues. "Paul Pry, or I Hope I Don't Intrude" and John E. Owens 

"Forty Winks" 

23 Dec, Wed. "The Victims" and "The Toodles" 

24 Dec, Thurs. "The Poor Gentleman" and "The Happiest 

Day in My Life" 

25 Dec, Fri. "The Drunkard, or The Fallen Saved" 

26 Dec, Sat. "The Serious Family" and "Paul Pry" 

27 Dec, Sun. Closed 

28 Dec, Mon. "Self" and "Young England" 

30 Dec! Wed. "Self" and "The Happiest Day in My Life" 

31 Dec, Thurs. "Everybody's Friend" and "A Conjugal 




John E. Owens 




1 Jan., Fri. 

2 Jan., Sat. 

3 Jan., Sun. 

4 Jan., Mon. 

5 Jan., Tues. 

6 Jan., Wed. 

7 Jan., Thurs. 

8 Jan., Fri. 

9 Jan., Sat. 

10 Jan., Sun. 

11 Jan., Mon. 

12 Jan., Tues. 

13 Jan., Wed. 

14 Jan., Thurs. 

15 Jan., Fri. 

16 Jan., Sat. 

17 Jan., Sun. 

18 Jan., Mon. 

19 Jan., Tues. 

20 Jan., Wed. 

21 Jan. 

22 Jan. 


23 Jan., Sat. 

24 Jan., Sun. 

25 Jan., Mon. 

26 Jan., Tues. 

27 Jan., Wed. 

28 Jan., Thurs. 

29 Jan., Fri. 

30 Jan., Sat. 

31 Jan., Sun. 


"Self," "Victims" and "The People's 

"Heir at Law" and "John Dobbs" 

"Nick of the Woods, or The Jibbenainosay" 
"Nick of the Woods" and "Poor Pillicoddy" 
"Ambition" and "The Post of Honor" 
"Outalanchet, or The Lion of the Forest" 

and "O'Neil, the Avenger" 
"Nick of the Woods, or The Jibbenainosay" 

and "The Rebel Chief" 

"Our American Cousin" 
"The Lady of Lvons" and "The Post of 

"Romeo and Juliet" and "My Precious 

"Love's Sacrifice" and "Sarah's Young 

"Bianca, or The Italian Wife's Revenge," to 

conclude with an Elegant Farce 

"Camille, or The Fate of a Coquette" 
"Much Ado About Nothing," to conclude 

with A Favorite Farce 
"The Stranger" 
"The School for Scandal" and "Nan, the 

Good For Nothing" 
"The Honeymoon" and "Horseshoe Robin- 
"Lady Audley's Secret," to conclude with 

A Favorite Farce 

John E. Owens 


Joseph Proctor 






John T. Raymond 


Mrs. D. P. Bowers 




Mrs. D. P. Bowers 




Mrs. D. P. Bowers 

Mrs. D. P. Bowers 


688-^40 O— 63- 





1 Feb., Mon 

2 Feb., Tues. 

3 Feb., Wed. 

4 Feb., Thurs. 

5 Feb., Fri. 

6 Feb., Sat. 

7 Feb., Sun. 

8 Feb., Mon. 

9 Feb., Tues. 

10 Feb., Wed. 

11 Feb., Thurs. 

12 Feb., Fri. 

13 Feb., Sat. 

14 Feb., Sun. 

15 Feb., Mon. 

16 Feb., Tues. 

17 Feb., Wed. 

18 Feb., Thurs. 

19 Feb., Fri. 

20 Feb., Sat. 

21 Feb., Sun. 

22 Feb., Mon. 

23 Feb., Tues. 

24 Feb., Wed. 

25 Feb., Thurs. 

26 Feb., Fri. 

27 Feb., Sat. 

28 Feb., Sun. 

29 Feb., Mon. 

1 Mar., Tues. 

2 Mar., Wed. 

3 Mar., Thurs. 

4 Mar., Fri. 

5 Mar., Sat. 

6 Mar., Sun. 

7 Mar., Mon. 

8 Mar., Tues. 

9 Mar., Wed. 

10 Mar., Thurs. 

11 Mar., Fri. 

12 Mar., Sat. 

13 Mar., Sun. 

14 Mar., Mon. 

"Lady Isabel of East Lynne" 





"Lady Isabel of East Lynne" and "Mummy" 


"Lady Isabel of East Lynne" and "Easy 


"Plot and Passion" and "Easy Shaving" 
"The Rivals, or a Trip to Bath" and "Poor 

"Pauline, or The Mysteries of the 

Chateau De Bercy" and" Your Life's in 

"Pauline, or The Mysteries of the Chateau 

De Bercy" and "The Toodles" 
"A Bold Stroke for a Husband" and "A 

Regular FLx" 
"Jane Shore" and "A-Regular Fix" 
"Much Ado About Nothing" 
"Pauline, or The Mysteries of the Chateau 

De Bercy" 
"Woman, or Love Against the World" 
"The Stranger" and "Four Sisters" 
"Rosedale, or The Rifle Ball" 







"Rosedale, or The Rifle Ball" 


"The Octoroon, or Life in Louisiana" 

"Babes in the Wood" and "Paul Pry" 

"Married Life" and "The Toodles" 

"The Fat Boy," "He's Jack Sheppard" and 

"My Neighbor's Wife" 
"Leap Year, or The Ladies' Privilege" and 

"Fasionable Society" 
"Babes in the Wood" and "The Fat Boy" 
"Rivals" and "Toodles" 
"Single Life" and "Married Life" 
"Our American Cousin," "Somebody's Coat" 

and "The Russian Admiral" 
"Our American Cousin," "Toodles" and 

"The Russian Admiral" 
"Henry IV," "The Battle of Shrewsbury" 

and "The Death of Hotspur" 

Mrs. D. P. Bowers 


Mrs. D. P. Bowers 




Mrs. D. P. Bowers 


Mrs. D. P. Bowers 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Walcot, Jr., 

and Alice Gray 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Walcot, Jr., 

and Alice Gray 

C. M. Walcot, Jr. 
J. S. Clarke 

J. S. Clarke 



H. Hackett 

Charles Kemble-Mason 





15 Mar., Tues. 

16 Mar., Wed. 

17 Mar., Thurs. 

18 Mar., Fri. 

19 Mar., Sat. 

20 Mar., 

21 Mar., 

22 Mar., 

23 Mar., 

24 Mar., 

25 Mar., 

26 Mar., 

27 Mar., 

28 Mar., 

29 Mar., 

30 Mar., 

31 Mar., 
1 Apr., 




















7 Apr., Thurs. 

8 Apr., Fri. 

9 Apr., Sat. 

10 Apr., Sun. 

11 Apr., Mon. 

12 Apr., Tues. 

13 Apr., Wed. 

14 Apr., Thurs. 

15 Apr., Fri. 

16 Apr., Sat. 

17 Apr., Sun. 

18 Apr., Mon. 

19 Apr., Tues. 

20 Apr., Wed. 

21 Apr., Thurs. 

22 Apr., Fri. 

"The Merry Wives of Windsor, or FalstafF 

Outwitted ijy Women" 
"Man of the World," "Monsieur Mallet, or 

The Post Office Mistake" and "A Regular 

"The Merry Wives of Windsor, or Falstaff 

Outwitted by Women" 
"Henry IV" 

"The Merry Wives of Windsor, or Falstaff 
Outwitted by Women" and "A Regular 




"The Octoroon, or Life in Louisiana" 


"Damon and Pythias" 

"The Octoroon, or Life in Louisiana" 


"Richard III" 


"The Octoroon, or Life in Louisiana" 


"Brutus, or The Fall of Tarquin" 

"The Octoroon, or Life in Louisiana" 



"Pizarro, or The Death of Rolla" 

"Senor Valiente, or The Soldier of Chapulte- 


"King Lear" 

"Senor Valiente, or The Soldier of Chapul- 


"King Lear" 

"Damon and Pythias" 

"Man and Wife, or More Secrets Than 
One"; grand violin solo, "The Girl I Left 
Behind Me"; and poem recital, "Shamus 
O'Brien, or The Bould Boy of Glingall" 

"The Broker of Bogota" 


"Wine Works Wonders" and "Horseshoe 
Robinson"; grand violin solo, "The Girl I 
Left Behind Me"; and poem recital, 
"Shamus O'Brien, or The Bould Boy of 




"As You Like It"; comic Shakespearean 
song, "The Seven Ages of Man"; and 
"Young England" 

"King Lear" 

J. H. Hackett 

Charles Kemble-Mason 
J. H. Hackett 
Alice Gray 


J. H. Hackett 

Charles Kemble-Mason 


Edwin Forrest 

Alice Gray 
Edwin Forrest 
Alice Gray 

Edwin Forrest 

Alice Gray 
Edwin Forrest 
Alice Gray 

Edwin Forrest 


Edwin Forrest 

Alice Gray 
Edwin Forrest 

Edwin Forrest 
Alice Gray 

Edwin Forrest 


John McCullough 

Prof. William Withers 

Edwin Forrest 


J. A. Heme 

C. B. Bishop 

Prof. William Withers 

John McCullough 

Edwin Forrest 


C. B. Bishop 

Jos. Parker 

Edwin Forrest 





23 Apr., Sat. "Romeo and Juliet" (second act and bal- 

cony scene), "A Midsummer's Night 
Dream" (first and fifth acts), "As You 
Like It" (second act) and "Taming of the 
Shrew" (Display of fireworks outdoors be- 
fore the performance) 

J. A. Heme 
Mrs. J. A. Allen 
C. B. Bishop 

24 Apr., Sun. 


25 Apr., Mon. 

"Jack Cade" 

Edwin Forrest 

26 Apr., Tues. 



27 Apr., Wed. 

"The Jewess, or The Council of Constance" 

H. B. Phillips 

and "The Little Treasure" 

Mrs. J. H. Allen 

28 Apr., Thurs. 

"Jack Cade" 

Edwin Forrest 

29 Apr., Fri. 



30 Apr., Sat. 

"She Stoops to Conquer, or The Mistakes of 

H. B. Phillips 

a Night" and "The Avenging Hand" 

John McCullough 

1 May, Sun. 


2 May, Mon. 

"The Gladiator" 

Edwin Forrest 

3 Mav, Tues. 



4 May, Wed. 

"The Soldier's Daughter" and "Sketches in 

Alice Gray 

India," concluding with her famous song 

Susan Denin 

"Whack Row-De-Dow" 

5 May, Thurs. 


Edwin Forrest 

6 May, Fri. 



7 May, Sat. 

"The Soldier's Daughter", and "The Aveng- 

Alice Gray 

ing Hand" 

J. H. McCullough 

8 May, Sun. 


9 May, Mon. 

"Everybody's Friend" and "The Toodles" 

J. S. Clarke 
Susan Denin 

10 May, Tues. 

"Married Life" and "The Toodles" 


11 May, Wed. 

"Our American Cousin" and "Two Mur- 


12 May, Thurs. 

"Everybody's Friend" and "He's Jack Shep- 


13 May, Fri. 

"Knights of the Round Table" and "Love in 


14 May, Sat. 

"Paul Pry" and "Jonathan Bradford, or The 
Murder at the Roadside Inn" 


15 May, Sun. 


16 May, Mon. 

"The Love Chase" and "A Dav After the 

Mary Mitchell 

17 Mav, Tues. 

"London Assurance" 


18 May, Wed. 

"The French Spy, or The Siege of Algiers" 
and "A Day After the Wedding" 


19 May, Thurs. 

"The Hidden Hand" 


20 May, Fri. 

"Satan in Paris" and "The Youth Who 
Never Saw a Woman" 


21 May, Sat. 

"Hidden Hand" 

Mary Mitchell 

22 May, Sun. 


23 May, Mon. 

"The Naiad Queen." During the spectacle. 

Susan Denin 

a grand Amazonian march by Eighteen 

J. H. Foster 

Young Ladies, magnificently arrayed in 

glittering armor. 

24 May, Tues. 



25 May, Wed. 



26 May, Thurs. 



27 May, Fri. 



28 May, Sat. 



29 May, Sun. 






30 May, Mon. 

31 May, Tues. 

1 June, Wed. 

2 June, Thurs. 

3 June, Fri. 

4 June, Sat. 

5 June, 

6 June, 

7 June, 

8 June, 

9 June, 

10 June, 

11 June, 

12 June, 

13 June, 

14 June, 

15 June, 

16 June, 

17 June, 

18 June, 

19 June, 

20 June, 











21 June, Tues. 

22 June, 

23 June, 


24 June, Fri. 

25 June, Sat. 

26 June, Sun. 

27 June, Mon. 

28 June, Tues. 

29 June, Wed. 

30 June, Thurs. 

1 July, Fri. 

2 July, Sat. 

"The Naiad Queen" 




"A Bull in a China Shop" and "His Last 

"Heir at Law" and "Jack Robinson and his 

"Comedy of Errors" and "Our Country 


"The Fat Boy" and "Comedy of Errors" 

"Robert Macaire" and "Comedy of Errors" 
"Comedy of Errors" and "Jonathan Brad- 
"Luck, or The Gentleman of Nature" and 

"The Toodles" 
"Luck, or The Gentleman of Nature" and 

"Babes in the Wood" 
"The Knights of the Round Table" and 

"Love in Livery" 
"Comedy of Errors" and "Babes in the 

"Everybody's Friend" and "The Toodles" 
"The Knights of the Round Table" and 

"Golden Farmer" 
Sacred Grand Concert 
"Two Gentlemen of Verona" and "Love in 

"Two Gentlemen of Verona" and "The 

Comedy of Errors" 
"Forty Thieves" — The piece concludes with 

the resplendent scene by Mr. C. Getz, 

"The Home of the Fairies," and "The 

Cascades of the Silver Lake." 

"Forty Thieves" 
"The Three Guardsmen," terminating with 

a grand battle picture, "An Assault Upon 

Rochelle" and the terrible storming of the 

"The Three Guardsmen" and "An Assault 

Upon Rochelle," to be followed by: Indian 

Club Exercises 

Violin Solo 

"Chinese dance" (comic) 

"The Dutch Actor" 
"The Three Guardsmen" and "An Assault 

Upon Rochelle" "Sketches in India" and 

her famous song, " Whack-Row-de-Dow" 

Susan Denin 

George Becks 
B. G. Rogers 
B. G. Rogers 
J. H. Foster 

J. S. Clarke 

Alice Gray 

J. S. Clarke 





J. S. Clarke 

Mme. Cecilia Y. Kretschmar 
J. S. Clarke 


Susan Denin 


Susan Denin 

S. W. Glenn 
Susan Denin 
A. W. Brady 
Prof. Wm. Withers 
Foster Brothers 
S. W. Glenn 
S. W. Glenn 
Susan Denin 





3 July, Sun. 

4 July, Mon. 

5 July, Tues. 

6 July, 


7 July, 


10 July, 


n July, 


4 Aug. 


5 Aug. 


6 Aug. 


7 Aug. 


8 Aug. 


9 Aug. 


10 Aug. 


11 Aug. 


12 Aug. 


13 Aug. 


14 Aug. 


15 Aug. 


16 Aug. 


17 Aug. 


18 Aug. 


19 Aug. 


20 Aug. 


21 Aug. 


29 Aug. 

, Mon. 

29 Aug., Mon. 

30 Aug., Tues. 

31 Aug., Wed. 

1 Sept., Thurs. 

2 Sept., Fri. 

3 Sept., Sat. 

4 Sept., Sun. 

5 Sept., Mon. 

6 Sept., Tues. 


"The Three Guardsmen," grand National 
Anthem by the entire company, and pan- 
tomime "The Magic Trumpet" 

"The Serious Family," 

"Ethiopian Melange" and "Romeo and 

Song and Dance Pantomine 

"The Magic Trumpet" 

"The Serious Family," "Chinese Dance," 
(comic) Indian Club Exercises, "My Prec- 
ious Betsy" (farce) 

Closed for the Season 

Grand Vocal and Instrumental Concert of 
Sacred Music 

Closed for the Season to August 3, Wednes- 

"Our American Cousin" 

"Young Widow" and "Married Life" 

"Our American Cousin" and "Stage 


"Christy's Minstrels" 







"Christy's Minstrels" 






Closed to August 28, Sunday 

The Second Regular Season: 

Opening of the Fall and Winter Season. 

Stage Manager 

Orchestra Leader 


A new drop curtain has been designed and 
executed by James Lamb, Esq. 

"Handy Andy," "Mischievous Annie" and 
"The Returned Volunteer" 


"The Irish Emigrant," "The Young Ac- 
tress" and "The Irish Mormon" 


" The Irish Lion," "The Young Actress" 
and "Lord Flannigan" 

"Shandy Maguire" and "The Young 


"Born to Good Luck, or An Irishman's For- 
tune," "Thrice Married, or Lucky Stars" 
and "The Yankee Housekeeper" 


S. W. Glenn 
Foster Brothers 

S. S. Stanford 
F. Myers 

J. Diamond 
Foster Brothers 
Susan Denin 

Foster Brothers 

Prof Withers and orchestra, 
Juliana May, Herr Wagner 

J. J. Raymond 

W. P. Sheldon, C. B. Bishop 

J. J. Raymond, C. B. Bishop 

George Christy 






George Christy 






J. B. Wright 
W. Withers, Jr. 
H. Clay Ford 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 




Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 





7 Sept., Wed. 

8 Sept., Thurs. 

9 Sept., Fri. 

10 Sept., Sat. 

1 1 Sept., Sun. 

12 Sept., Mon. 

13 Sept., Tues. 

14 Sept., Wed. 

15 Sept., Thurs 

16 Sept., Fri. 

17 Sept., Sat. 

18 Sept., Sun. 

19 Sept., Mon. 

20 Sept., Tues. 

21 Sept., Wed. 

22 Sept., Thurs. 

23 Sept., Fri. 

24 Sept., Sat. 

25 Sept., Sun. 

26 Sept., Mon. 

27 Sept., Tues. 

28 Sept., Wed. 

29 Sept., Thurs. 

30 Sept., Fri. 
1 Oct., Sat. 

2 Oct. 


3 Oct. 


4 Oct. 


5 Oct. 


6 Oct. 


7 Oct. 


8 Oct. 


9 Oct. 


10 Oct. 


11 Oct. 


12 Oct. 


13 Oct. 


14 Oct. 


15 Oct. 


16 Oct. 


17 Oct. 


18 Oct. 


"The Irish Lion," "The Young Actress" and 

"The Happy Man" 
"Handy Andy," "Mischievous Annie" and 

"The Yankee Housekeeper" 

"Irish Assurance and Yankee Modesty," 

"Thrice Married" and "The Returned 

"Rory O'More" and "Mischievous Annie" 

"Ireland As It Was" and "Yankee House- 
"Dombey and Son" 
"Shandy Maguire" and "Irish Assurance 

and Yankee Modesty" 
"The Deserter, or Military Execution" and 

"A Lesson for Husbands" 
"Dombey and Son" 
"Ireland As It Was" and "The Yankee 

"Kathleen Mavourneen, or St. Patrick's Eve" 

and "Thrice Married" 
"Kathleen Mavourneen, or St. Patrick's Eve" 

and "A Lesson for Husbands" 
"Kathleen Mavourneen, or St. Patrick's Eve" 

and "Mischievous Annie" 

"Fanchon the Cricket" 
Sat. afternoon at 3:00: Benefit of the Third 

Ward fund to relieve drafted men. "Mar- 
got, or The Poultry Dealer" and "The 

Jealous Stock Broker". 
Sat. evening at 8:00: "Fanchon the Cricket" 

"The Pearl of Savoy, or A Mother's Prayer" 

"Little Barefoot" 

"Fanchon the Cricket" 

"The Pearl of Savoy, or A Mother's Prayer" 
"Little Barefoot" 

"The Pearl of Savoy, or A Mother's Prayer" 

"Life and Death of Richard III" 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 



Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 

Mr. W. J. Florence 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 


Mr. W. J. Florence 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Florence 




Maggie Mitchell 





Maggie Mitchell 

Maggie Mitchell 






Maggie Mitchell 











19 Oct., Wed. "Much Ado About Nothing" 

20 Oct., Thurs. "Macbeth" 

21 Oct., Fri. "The Merchant of Venice" and "Katherine 

and Petruchio" 

22 Oct., Sat. "Retribution, or A Husband's Revenge" and 

"Katherine and Petruchio" 

23 Oct., Sun. Closed 

24 Oct., Mon. "Hamlet" 

25 Oct., Tues. "Retribution, or A Husband's Revenge" and 

"She Would and He Wouldn't" 

During the evening, the orchestra, under the 
direction of Prof. Wm. Withers, Jr., will 
perform the GRAND U.S. MILITARY 
QUADRILLE composed expressly for the 
Winter Garden, N.Y., by Robert Stoepel, 
Esq., and kindly presented by him to Mr. 
J. T. Ford. 

"A New Way to Pay Old Debts" 

"Richard III" 


"Retribution, or A Husband's Revenge" and 
"She Would and He Wouldn't" 


"Faust and Marguerite" 




"Faust and Marguerite". 

During the evening the band under the 
direction of Prof. Wm. Withers, Jr., will 
perform the spirited, stirring UNITED 

"Faust and Marguerite" 


"The Erring and Penitent Wife" and "East 
Lynne, or The Elopement" 


NOTICE— A CARD.— Returns of the votes 
be announced from the stage during the 
performance, as soon as they are received 
by telegram. 

"The Stranger, or Misanthropy and Re- 
pentance" and "My Dress Boots" 

"Child of the Regiment" and "Rough Dia- 

"Miriam's Crime" and "Blondin on the Low 



"The Seven Sisters" and "The Birth of Cupid 
in the Bower of Ferns" 
Tues. Same 

Wed. Same 

Thurs. Same 

Fri. Same 

Sat. Same 

20 Nov., Sun. Closed 

26 Oct., Wed. 

27 Oct., Thurs. 

28 Oct., Fri. 

29 Oct., Sat. 

30 Oct., Sun. 

31 Oct., Mon. 

1 Nov., Tues. 

2 Nov., Wed. 

3 Nov., Thurs. 

4 Nov., Fri. 

5 Nov., Sat. 

6 Nov., Sun. 

7 Nov., Mon. 

8 Nov., Tues. 

9 Nov., Wed. 

10 Nov., Thurs. 

1 1 Nov., Fri. 

12 Nov., Sat. 

13 Nov., Sun. 

14 Nov., Mon. 

15 Nov., 

16 Nov., 

17 Nov., 

18 Nov., 

19 Nov., 






J. B. Roberts 



Alice Gray 

J. Wheelock 

Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Gomersal 



John E. McDonough 






21 Nov., Mon. 






































"The Seven Sisters" and "The Birth of 
Cupid in the Bower of Ferns" 





"The Seven Sisters" (first two acts) and 


"Kathleen Mavourneen, or Under the Spell" 
and "A Loan of a Lover" 


"Pioneer Patriot, or The Maid of the War 
Path" and "It Takes Two to Quarrel" 


"Hidden Hand" 



"Fanchon the Cricket" 







"Lady Audley's Secret, or The Mysteries of 
Audley Court" 


"The Jewess of Madrid, or The Monastery 
of St. Just" 



"The Italian Wife" and "The Serious Fam- 


Treasury Ball and Concert 

"Lady Audley's Secret" 


"The Hunchback" 

"Lady Isabel of East Lynne" 



"Mazeppa, or An Untamed Rocking Horse," 
"Solon Shingle" and "Camille" 

"Mons. Jacques," "Camille" and "Mazeppa, 
or An Untamed Rocking Horse" 

"Rip Van Winkle, or A Legend of the Cat- 
skills" and "Mazeppa, or An Untamed 
Rocking Horse" 

"Acting Mad," "CamUle" and "More 
Blunders Than One" 

"Handy Andy" and "Shylock, or The Mer- 
chant of Venice Preserved" 

"Maccarthy More," "Acting Mad" and 

"Mazeppa, or An Untamed Rocking 

John E. McDonough 


Mrs. H. Watkins 


Mr. H. Watkins 


Maggie Mitchell 






Mrs. D. P. Bowers 



Mrs. D. P. Bowers 





Frank Drew 



Frank Drew 









, Sun. 


2 Jan. 

, Mon. 

"Damon and Pythias" 

Edwin Forrest 

3 Jan. 

, Tues. 



4 Jan. 

, Wed. 

"Richelieu, or The Conspiracy" 


5 Jan. 

, Thurs. 



6 Jan. 




7 Jan. 


"The Robbers" 

John McCuUough 

8 Jan. 



9 Jan. 



Edwin Forrest 

10 Jan. 




11 Jan. 




12 Jan. 


"King Lear" 


13 Jan. 




14 Jan. 


"Lucretia Borgia" and "People's 


Alice Gray and John McCullough 

15 Jan. 



16 Jan. 



Edwin Forrest 

17 Jan. 




"Lucretia Borgia" and "People's 



Alice Gray and John McCullough 

18 Jan. 


"Jack Cade, the Bondman of Kent" 

Edwin Forrest 

19 Jan. 




20 Jan. 




21 Jan. 


"The Wife, A Tale of Mantua,' 
Pirate's Legacy" 

' and ' 


Alice Gray and John McCullough 

22 Jan. 



23 Jan. 


"Metamora, the Last of the Wampanoages" 

Edwin Forrest 

24 Jan. 




25 Jan. 


"The Wonder, or A Woman Keeps a Secret" 

Mme. Ponisi 

and "The Serious Family" 

26 Jan. 



Edwin Forrest 

27 Jan. 




28 Jan. 


"The Streets of New York" 

Alice Gray and C. B. Bishop 

29 Jan. 



30 Jan. 



Edwin Forrest 

31 Jan. 




1 Feb. 


"The Streets of New York" 

Alice Gray 

2 Feb. 


"King Lear" 

Edwin Forrest 

3 Feb. 


"Richard III" 

Same (benefit and last appear- 

4 Feb. 


"The Streets of New York" 

Alice Gray 

5 Feb. 



6 Feb. 


"Rivals" and "The Toodles" 

J. S. Clarke 

7 Feb. 


"Paul Pry, or I Hope I Don't In 
"Married Life" 




8 Feb. 


"She Stoops to Conquer" and " 

My Neigh- 


bor's Wife" 

9 Feb. 


"Babes in the Woods" and "Paul 



10 Feb. 


"Everybody's Friend" and "Love 

in Livery" 


11 Feb. 


"Everybody's Friend" and "P. 
Man and the Tiger" 

R, or 



12 Feb. 



13 Feb. 


"School of Reform" and "Toodl 


J. S. Clarke 

14 Feb. 


"Married Life," "Love in Livery" 



"Somebody's Coat" 

15 Feb. 


"The Streets of New York" 


16 Feb. 




17 Feb. 








18 Feb., Sat. 

19 Feb., Sun. 

20 Feb., Mon. 

21 Feb., Tues. 

22 Feb., Wed. 

23 Feb., Thurs. 

24 Feb., Fri. 

25 Feb., Sat. 

26 Feb., Sun. 

27 Feb., Mon. 

28 Feb., Tues. 
1 Mar., Wed. 

p 2 Mar., Thurs. 

3 Mar., Fri. 

, 4 Mar., Sat. 
I 5 Mar., Sun. 

6 Mar., Mon. 

7 Mar., Tues. 

8 Mar., Wed. 

9 Mar., Thurs. 

10 Mar., Fri. 

11 Mar., Sat. 

12 Mar., Sun. 

13 Mar., Mon. 

14 Mar., Tues. 

15 Mar., Wed. 

16 Mar., Thurs. 

17 Mar., Fri. 

18 Mar., Sat. 

19 Mar., Sun. 

20 Mar., Mon. 

21 Mar., Tues. 



"School of Reform" and "The Toodles" 

"The Poor Gentleman" and "Our Ameri- 
can Cousin" 


"Love in Livery" and "Nicholas Nickleby" 

"Nicholas Nickleby" and "Leap Year" 

"Our Country Cousin," "The Toodles" and 
"Jonathan Bradford, or The Murder at the 
Roadside Inn" 



"The Mystery of Audley Court" 

"The Hunchback" 

"The Jewess of Madrid, or The Monastery of 
St. Just" 

"The Lady of Lyons" 

"Stranger" and "Honeymoon" 


"Lady Audley's Secret" and "Shocking 

"Bianca, the Italian Wife" and "Shocking 

"Diana, or Love's Masquerade" 
"Diana, or Love's Masquerade" and "My 

Wife's Maid" 
"Lady Audley's Secret" and "A Day After 

the Wedding" 
"Diana, or Love's Masquerade" and "The 

Wreck Ashore" 
A Grand Concert for the Benefit of Mr. Wm.. 



"Brutus, or The Fall of Tarquin" 

"Jane Shore" and "The Love Chase" 

"The Broker of Bogota" 

"Virginius, the Roman Father" 

"The Apostate" and "Jonathan Bradford" 

JAMES R. O'BRYON, of Ford's Theater, 
"DRAFTED". The following eminent 
talent of this city have kindly volunteered 
their services for this special occasion: 
Mrs. C. Young Kretschmar, Madame 
Marie Merino, Mr. J. K. Goodall, Mr. A. D. 
Reed, Mr. E. Douglas Webb, Mr. George 
Loesch, Mr. Hubert Schutter, Mr. John 
Parsons, and Signor Frederico Gennari 

"Nick of the Woods, or The Jibbenainosay" 


J. S. Clarke 

J. S. Clarke 

J. S. Clarke 



Mrs. D. P. Bowers 




Same (benefit and only perform- 

Mrs. D. P. Bowers 





Miss Adalina Motie 

Mme. Marie Merino 

Signor Giuseppe Tamaro 

Edwin Forrest 


Mrs. I. B. Phillips, Alice Gray 

Edwin Forrest 


John McCullough, JOHN 
WILKES BOOTH appears as 
Pescara in "The Apostate" 

Joseph Proctor 





22 Mar., Wed. 

23 Mar., Thurs. 

24 Mar., Fri. 

25 Mar., Sat. 

26 Mar., Sun. 

27 Mar., Mon. 

28 Mar., 

29 Mar., 

30 Mar., 

31 Mar., 

7 Apr., 

8 Apr., 

9 Apr., 
10 Apr., 


11 Apr., Tues. 

12 Apr., Wed. 

13 Apr., Thurs. 

14 Apr., Fri. 

15 Apr., Sat. 

"Ambition, or The Throne, The Tomb, and 

the Scaffold" 
"Pizarro, or The Death of Rolla" and 

"The Rebels Doom, or The Death Fetch" 

and "Nick of the Woods" 

"La Forza Del Destine" (The Force of Des- 
tiny) Max Maretzek's Grand Italian 

Opera, for six nights only. Opening night, 

Mon. Mar. 27, 1865. 
"Fra DiaVola" 
"La Sonnambula" 
"Don Sebastian" 

"The Workmen of Washington" 
"She Stoops to Conquer, or The Mistakes of 

a Night" and "Hole in the Wall" 
"School for Scandal" 
"The Workmen of Washington" 
"The Story of Peggy the Actress" and "The 

Hole in the Wall" 
"Our American Cousin" ASSASSINATION 

Closed by order of Secretary of War E. M. 


Joseph Proctor 



Signora Carozzi Zucchi 
Conductor: Carl Bergman 
Leader: Henry Appy 

Clara Louise Kellogg 
Signora Carozzi Zucchi 
Clara Louise Kellogg 
Signora Carozzi Zucchi 

Laura Keene 






Laura Keene 


Laura Keene 



of the BIRTHDAY of 

First President of the United States 
February 22, 1865 

It will be observed in this splendid theater by a 




Late principal of the Seventh Regiment Gymnasium, 

St. Mark's Place, New York, now of Brady's Gymnasium, Washington 


The Renowned 

George, William, Thomas, and Alfred 

The most distinguished Gymnasts of this or any 

other country have returned from their South 

American Tour, and wUI in compliment to 

Mr. Brady, visit Washington to 

The Ball and Promenade Concert will be 

conducted with the same Liberality, 

Discrimination, and Exclusiveness 

as distinguished the Grand Balls at the Academy 

of Music, New York 

The Theatre will be most brilliantly illuminated, and 

gorgeously decorated with 



Also, TWO GRAND BANDS— one for Promenading and one for Dancing— 

so there will be 

The invited guests will embrace 




' EveningStar, February 21, 1865. 


April 13, 1962 

Dr. George J. Olszewski, Historian 
Ford's Theatre 
511 10th St. N.W. 
Washington 25, D.C. 

Dear Dr. Olszewski: 

As I told you on your visit here in New York, I say 
again and unequivocally that John Wilkes Booth did 
not bore the hole in the door leading to the box 
President Lincoln occupied the night of his assassi- 
nation, April 14, 1865, as "history" seems to think 
and has so many times repeated. 

The hole was bored by my father, Harry Clay Ford, or 
rather on his orders, and was bored for the very 
simple reason it would allow the guard, one Parker, 
easy opportunity whenever he so desired to look into 
the box rather than to open the inner door to check 
on the Presidential party. As we know Parker left 
his post to view the performance from the dress circle. 

My father would always "blow his top" , to use today's 
slang, whenever he read or heard of this historical 
absurdity (who was it said "history is an implied lie?") 
and would often finish his vehemence by saying,^'\John 
Booth had too much to do that day other than to^around 
boring holes in theatre doors". And while it is true 
Mr. Booth might use "professional courtesies" to attend 
performances, it is laughable to imagine he had such 
free access to Ford's Theatre that he could perform 
feats of carpentry whenever he wished, to say nothing 
of doing it the very day the decision was made by 
President Lincoln to atten<Lthe performance at the 

My wife and I enjoyed your visit and hope to see or to 
hear from you again soon. 

Best regards, 

Frank Ford 
255 West 90th St. 
New York 24, N.Y. 
TR 4-0745 

Figure 62. Letter of Frank Ford, son of Hany Clay Ford. 





a. Official Papers 

(In National Archives unless stated otherwise) 

U.S. Government: 

General Records of the U.S. Government, Record 

Group 1 1 . 
Records of the U.S. Senate, Record Group 46. 
Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, 

Record Group 277. 
Records of Joint Committees of Congress, Record 
Group 128. 

Joint Committee on the Ford Theatre 
Records of the Architect of the Capitol, U.S. 

Ford Theatre file. 
Records of the General Accounting Office, Record 
Group 217. 

Third Auditor's Account, 1866. 
Department of the Army: 

Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, 
Record Group 107. 

Endorsement Book, 1865-1866. 
Index to Letters Received, 1865-1866. 
Index to Letters Sent, 1865-1866. 
Letters Received, 1865-1866. 
Letters Sent, 1865-1866. 
Record of the Headquarters of the Army, Record 

Group 108. 
Records of The Adjutant General's Office, Record 

Group 94. 
Records of the Office of The Judge Advocate Gen- 
eral (War), Record Group 153. 
Correspondence files, 1842-1933. 
Records of Investigations, 1864—1927, espe- 
cially file "Lincoln Assassination Suspects," 
MM2251, containing original depositions. 
Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, 
Record Group 77. 

Contract Files, 1866-1928. 

Correspondence and Miscellaneous Records, 

Document File, 1894-1923. 
Photographic Records, 1862-1940. 

Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 
Record Group HI. 

Photographs, 1861-1923. 
Other Records, 1860-1901. 
Records of the Office of the Surgeon General, 
Record Group 112. 

General Correspondence of the Army Medi- 
cal Museum, 1862-1932. 
Photograph files, Armed Forces Institute of 
Records of the Office of the Quartermaster Gen- 
eral, Record Group 92. 

General and Miscellaneous Headquarters 

Records, 1794-1925, especially file 57078, 

"Ford's Theatre." 

Records Relating to Construction, 1870-1940. 

Records of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau, 

1863-1866. Record Group 110. 
Records of the Bureau of Prisons, Record Group 

War Department Collection of Confederate Rec- 
ords, Record Group 109. 
Department of the Interior: 

General Records of the Department of the In- 
terior, Record Group 48. 
Records of the Commission of Fine Arts, Record 

Group 66. 
Records of the National Park Service, Record 

Group 79. 
Records of the Office of Public Buildings and 
Public Parks of the National Capital, Record 
Group 42. 

General Correspondence, National Capital 
Parks, 1926-1961, file 1100/343, "Lincoln 
"Restoration of Ford's Theatre," 1936-1962. 
Department of Justice: 

Records of the District Courts of the United 
States, Record Group 21. 

Records of the District Court for the District 

of Columbia, 1857-1863. 
Docket Book (Criminal Court), 1863-1934. 
"Habeas Corpus Case No. 46." 
"Papers in the Trial of John H. Surratt 
(U.S. vs. John H. Surratt) : Criminal 
Case No. 4731, No. 6594 and No. 


Department of the Treasury: 
General Records of the Department of the Treas- 
ury, Record Group 56. 
Records of the Treasurer of the United States, 

Record Group 50. 
Records of the Procurement Division (Treasury), 

Record Group 137. 
Government of the District of Columbia: 
Records of the Profjerty Clerk, Metropolitan 
Police, District of Columbia. 
Police Blotter, 1865. 
Records of the Office, Recorder of Deeds, District 
of Columbia, Title Building. 

Index Book 19, 20A, and 20B. 3 vols. 
Land Records, N.C.T.-l, D.C. 
Land Records, N.C.T.-2, D.C. 
Land Records, J.A.S.-215, D.C. 
Records of the Office of the Surveyor, District of 
Columbia, District Building. 

Record of Squares, Book 11, 1792-1796. 
Subdivisions, Book 57, 1916-1918. 
Survey Book 27, 1903-1932. 
"Survey Papers, Square 377." 

b. Private Papers 

(In Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, 
unless stated otherwise.) 

Papers of Major General E. Auger. 

Diary, John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln Museum. 

Papers of Thomas E. Ewing. 

Ford Family Papers, Maryland Historical 

Society, Baltimore, Md. 
Papers of Major General Montgomery J. 

a. Official Documents 

U.S. Government. Trial of John H. Surratt in 
the Criminal Court for the District of Columbia. 
2 vols. Washington: G.P.O., 1867. 

U.S. Congress. The Globe, 1861-65, 1893-94 
(Official Proceedings of the Congress of the 
United States) . Washington: Gales & Seaton, 
1861-1865, 1893-94. 

. Journal of the U.S. House of Representa- 
tives. 3d Sess., 37th Congress, 1862-1863. 
Washington: U.S.G.P.O., 1863. 

U.S. Senate. Report of the Committee of the 
Judiciary on the Assassination of President Lin- 
coln. Washington: U.S.G.P.O. 1866. 

U.S. War Department. Annual Report of the 
Secretary of War, 1863-1866. 4 vols. Wash- 
ington: G. P.O., 1863-1866. 

. Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 

1863-1866, 1893-1894, 1932-1933. 8 vols. 
Washington: G.P.O., 1864-1933. 

. Annual Report of the Quartermaster 

General, 1863-1867. 5 vols. Washington: 
G.P.O., 1864-1868. 

Caemmerer, H. P. (comp.). Washington, The 
National Capital. Senate Document No. 332, 
71st Congress, 3d Sess. Washington: U.S. 
G.P.O., 1932. 

McClure, Stanley W. Historical and Architec- 
tural Features Significant in the Restoration or 
Partial Restoration of Ford's Theater. Wash- 
ington: U.S. Department of the Interior, 
N.C.P., 1956. 

. The Lincoln Museum and the House 

Where Lincoln Died. (National Park Service 
Historical Handbook No. 3.) Washington: 
G.P.O., 1954. 

Peterson & Brothers, T. B. ( eds. ) . The Trial of 
the Assassins and Conspirators. Philadelphia: 
T. B. Peterson & Brothers, 1865. The complete 
and unabridged edition. 

Pitman, Benn (comp.). The Assassination of 
President Lincoln and the Trial of the Con- 
spirators. New York : Moore, Wilstach & Bald- 
win, 1865. (The officially expurgated ac- 

Poore, Ben: Perley (ed.). The Conspiracy Trial 
for the Murder of the President. 3 vols. Bos- 
ton: J. E. Tiltonand Co., 1865-1866. 

Shedd, Charles E., Jr. Lincoln State Park and 
Nancy Hanks Lincoln State Memorial, Spencer 
County, Indiana. In Historic Site Survey 
Series. Philadelphia: U.S. Department of the 
Interior, N.P.S., 1956. 

b. Memoirs, Diaries, Etc. 

Baker, L. C. History of the United States Secret 
Service. Philadelphia, 1867. ( Baker was Chief 
of the U.S.S.S. during the Civil War.) 

Buckingham, J. E. Reminiscences and Souvenirs 
of the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. 
Washington, 1894. (Buckingham was door- 
keeper at Ford's Theatre, April 14, 1865. ) 

Ferguson, W. J. / Saw Booth Shoot Lincoln. 
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930. 
(Ferguson operated a restaurant and bar north 
of Ford's Theatre and also worked as theatre 
usher at times. ) 

Ford, George D. These Were Actors. New York : 
Library Publishers, 1955. (The author is the 
son of H. Clay Ford, Treasurer of Ford's Thea- 

Forrester, Izela. This One Mad Act. Boston: 
Hale, Cushman and Flint, 1937. (The au- 
thoress is the granddaughter of John Wilkes 

Gobright, L. A. Recollections of Men and Things 
at Washington During Half a Century. Phila- 
delphia, 1869. (Gobright was the Washington 
correspondent of the London Times.) 


May, John F. "The Mark of the Scalpel," Co- 
lumbia Historical Society Records, XIII, 51. 
(Dr. May positively identified Booth's body on 
board the monitor, Montauk, by the scar of a 
tumor which he had removed from Booth's neck 
in 1864.) 

Mudd, Nellie (ed.). The Life of Dr. Samuel 
Mudd. New York: Neal and Company, 1906. 
(The authoress is Dr. Mudd's granddaughter.) 

Sollers, John Ford. The Theatrical Career of 
John T. Ford. Chaps. Ill and IV, 1959. (Un- 
published doctoral dissertation by the grand- 
nephew of John T. Ford. ) 

Welles, Gideon. The Diary of Gideon Welles. 
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1925. (Welles 
was Lincoln's Secretary of the Navy. ) 


a. Books 

Bellanca, Horace V. A History of Stagecraft in 
America, 1798-1820, and Its Relation to the 
Drama of the Period. Washington: Catholic 
University, 1954. 

Bishop, Jim. The Day Lincoln Was Shot. New 
York: Harper & Brothers, 1955. 

Brooks, Noah. Washington in Lincoln's Time. 
New York, 1896. 

Brown, T. AUsten. History of the American Stage. 
New York: Dick and Fitzgerald, 1870. 

. A History of the New York Stage: From 

the First Performance in 1732 to 1901. 3 vols. 
New York : Dodd, Mead and Co., 1903. 

Bryan, George S. The Great American Myth: 
The True Story of Lincoln's Murder. New 
York: Carrick and Evans, Inc., 1940. 

Cheney, Sheldon. The Theatre: Three Thou- 
sand Years of Drama, Acting and Stagecraft. 
New York: Tuder Publishing Co., 1935. 

Daly, Charles P. First Theatre in America. New 
York: The Dunlap Society, 1896. 

Dibdin, Charles. A Complete History of the Stage. 
5 vols. London: For the Author, 1800. 

Dimmick, Ruth Crosby. Our Theatre Today and 
Yesterday. New York: H. K. Fly Co., 1913. 

Dulles, Foster Rhea. America Learns to Play. 
New York: Appleton-Century, 1940. 

Dunlap, William. History of the American Thea- 
tre. New York: J. & J. Harper, 1832. 

Eisenschiml, Otto. Why Was Lincoln Murdered? 
Boston, 1937. 

Ferguson, James. History of Modern Styles of 
Architecture. 3 vols. London, 1862. 

Ford, Paul Leicester. Washington and the Thea- 
tre. New York: The Dunlap Society, 1899. 

Freedley, George, and Reeves, John A. A History 
of the Theatre. New York: Crown Publishers, 

688-440 O— 63- 


Hornblow, Arthur. A History of the Theatre in 
America (From Its Beginnings to the Present 
Time). 2 vols. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 
and Co., 1919. 

Hughes, Glenn. A History of the American Thea- 
tre. New York. Samuel French, 1951. 

Ireland, Joseph N. Records of the New York 
Stage from 1750 to I860. 2 vols. New York: 
T. H. Morrell, 1866. 

Jackson, Richard P. The Chronicles of George- 
town, D.C., from 1751 to 1878. Washington: 
R. O. Polkinhorn, 1878. 

James, Reese Davis. Old Drury of Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1932. 

Kimmel, Stanley. The Mad Booths of Maryland. 
Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 

Leech, Margaret. Reveille in Washington, 1860- 
1865. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., 
Inc., 1945. 

Lindstrom, Ralph G. Lincoln Finds God. New 
York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1958. 

Lippincott, Horace Mather. Early Philadelphia, 
Its People, Life and Progress. Philadelphia: 
J. B. Lippincott, 1917. 

Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial History of the 
Civil War. 2 vols. Philadelphia: G. W. Childs, 

Matthews, Brander, and Hutton, Laurence (eds.) . 
Actors and Actresses of Great Britain and the 
United States from the Days of David Garrick 
to the Present Time. 5 vols. New York : Cassel 
& Co., 1886. 

Mayorga, Margaret C. A Short History of the 
American Drama. New York: Dodd, Mead & 
Co., 1932. 

Moody, Richard. America Takes the Stage: Ro- 
manticism in American Drama and Theatre, 
1750-1900. Bloomington: Indiana University 
Press, 1955. 

Nagler, A. M. (ed.). Sources of Theatrical His- 
tory. New York: Theatre Annual, Inc., 1952. 

Nicoll, Allardyce. The Development of the Thea- 
tre (A Study of Theatrical Art from the Begin- 
nings to the Present Day). New York: Har- 
court Brace and Co., 1927. 

. The English Theatre (A Short History) . 

New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1936. 

Odell, George C. D. Annals of the New York 
Stage. 15 vols. New York : Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, 1927. 

Oldroyd, O. H. Assassination of Abraham Lin- 
coln. Washington: O. H. Oldroyd, 1901. 

Quinn, Arthur Hobson. A History of the Ameri- 
can Drama from the Beginning to the Civil 
War. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1923. 

Rankin, Hugh F. The Colonial Theatre: Its His- 
tory and Operations. Williamsburg, Va., 1955. 
Unpublished MS in 2 vols. 


Sandburg, Carl. Lincoln Collector. New York: 

Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1949. 
. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years. 

2 vols. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 

. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 4 

vols. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1939. 

Scharf, J. Thomas. Chronicles of Baltimore. Bal- 
timore: Turnbull Brothers, 1874. 

Southern, Richard. Changeable Scenery: Its Ori- 
gin and Development in the British Theatre. 
London: Faber and Faber, Ltd., 1952. 

Starr, John W., Jr. Lincoln's Last Day. New 
York, 1922. 

Van Doren Stern, Philip. The Man Who Killed 
Lincoln. New York: Random House, 1939. 

Warren, Louis A. Lincoln's Youth, Indiana 
Years, Seven to Twenty-One, 1816-1830. New 
York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1959. 

Willard, George O. History of the Providence 
Stage, 1762-1891. Providence: Rhode Island 
News Co., 1891. 

Wilson, Francis. John Wilkes Booth. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1929. 

Winchcole, Dorothy C. The First Baptists in 
Washington, D.C., 1802-1952. Washington: 
First Baptist Church, 1952. 

b. Periodical Articles 

Coad, O.S. "The American Theatre in the Eight- 
eenth Century," The South Atlantic Quarterly, 
XVH (July, 1918), 190-197. 

. "The First American Play," The Nation, 

CVn (August 17, 1918), 182-183. 

Duerr, Edwin. "Charles Ciceri and the Back- 
ground of American Scene Design," Theatre 
Arts Monthly, XVI (December, 1932), 983- 

"Fifty Years Ago in the Star," The Washington 
Sunday Star, Apri] 23, 1915. 

Ford, John T. "Behind the Curtain of Conspir- 
acy," The North American Review, CXLIX 
(April 1889), 484-493. 

Ford, Worthington C. "The Beginnings of Amer- 
ican Dramatic Literature," The New England 
Magazine, New Series, IX, 674-680. 

Fox, Dixon Ryan. "The Development of the 
American Theater," New York History, XVII 
(January 1936), 22-41. 

Gay, Frederick Lewis. "The First American 
Play," The Nation, LXXXVIII (February 11, 
1909), 136. 

Hamar, Clifford E. "Scenery on the Early Amer- 
ican Stage," The Theatre Annual, 1948-1949, 
VII, 84-103. 

"How Booth Was Buried," The Baltimore News, 
March 16, 1901. 

Lawrence, W. J. "Early American Playgoing," 

The Theatre, XXIV (December 1916), 368, 

Metcalf, Kenneth N. "Biography of a Chair," 

Lincoln Herald, LXIII, No. 4 (Winter 1961), 

Proctor, John Clagett. "Ford Theatre Collapse 

Stirs Capital," The Washington Sunday Star, 

June 8, 1930. 
Sherwood, William. "First Theatres of the 

South," The Southern Literary Messenger, I 

(January 1939), 56-59. 
Sutherland-Graeme, Capt. A. V. "Three Old 

London Theatres," The Connoisseur, XCVIII 

(August 1936) , 92-96. 
Swanson, Wesley. "Wings and Backdrops," The 

Drama, XVIII (October 1927), 5-7, 30. 

c. Newspapers 

Alexandria Gazette (Va.), 1862-1865. 
Baltimore Advertiser and Commercial News, 

Baltimore Daily Gazette, 1863. * 

Baltimore Sun, 1863-1865. f 

Baltimore Weekly Sun, 1863-1865. 
Belair National American (Md.), 1863. *; 

Chicago Daily Tribune, 1863-1865. f 

The Columbia (D.C.) , 1862-1865. 
Daily Morning Chronicle (D.C), 1863. 
Daily National Intelligencer (D.C), 1833-1866. 
Daily National Republican (D.C), 1863. 
Washington Evening Star, 1861-1865. 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (N.Y. ), 

Harper's Illustrated Weekly (N.Y.) , 1865. 
New York Herald-Tribune, 1865. 
New York Sun, 1865. 
New York Times, 1865. 
New York World, 1865. 
Philadelphia Inquirer, 1862-1865. 
Sunday Morning Chronicle (D.C), 1863-1865. 
Washington Post, 1865-1893. 
Weekly Chronicle (D.C), 1865. 
Weekly National Intelligencer (D.C), 1863-1865. 



a. Libraries and Museums 


Depositions of Ford Theatre Employees, 1865- 

General Correspondence on Restoration of Ford's 

Theatre, 1960-1962. 
Interviews, 1960-1962. 
Photographs, 1865-1962. 



Archives of the Lincoln Museum. 
Chain of Title Papers to Ford's Theatre Building. 
Periodical Literature. 
Photographs, 1865-196L 

General Correspondence, Lincoln Museum, 1932- 


American Institute of Architects Library, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Catholic University Library, Brookland, Mary- 

Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Ford Theatre Collection, Maryland Historical So- 
ciety, Baltimore, Md. 

Ford Theatre Collection, Public Library of the 
District of Columbia. 

Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mas- 

Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, Il- 

Lincoln National Life Foundation, Fort Wayne, 

New York Public Library, New York, New York. 

Peabody Conservatory Library, Baltimore, Mary- 

Peale Museum, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Rare Book Room, Library of Congress. 

b. Interviews 

Coroner, District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. 
Harry J. Baudu, Washington, D.C. 
Frank J. Davis, Washington, D.C. 

Rutherford Day, Bethesda, Md. 

Alexis Droutzkoy, New York, N.Y. 

Paul Flint, Washington, D.C. 

Herman G. Goldbeck, Annandale, Va. 

Don Hehir, Washington, D.C. 

Theodor Horydczak, Arlington, Va. 

Frank lelenfy, Georgetown, D.C. 

Grace Kempton, McLean, Va. 

Harry Kirwan and John Smith, McSorley's Old 

Ale House, New York, N.Y. 
Billy Martin, Georgetown, D.C. 
John J. McGrain, Washington, D.C. 
Robert J. McKendry, Arlington, Va. 
Doris E. Morgan, Baltimore, Md. 
Frank Oles, Baltimore, Md. 
George Anton Pappas, Washington, D.C. 
Ada Robb-Donohue, Swan Harbor, D.C. 
Dr. I. Lewis Sandler, Washington, D.C. 
Dr. Frances T. Sharpe, Washington, D.C. 
John Steinway, New York, N.Y. 
C. Eugene Stewart, Washington, D.C. 
Dr. C. C. Tansill, Washington, D.C. 
Joseph M. Zamoiski, Washington, D.C. 

c. Photographs 

Mathew M. Brady Collection, National Archives 
Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, Illi- 
Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, Illi- 
Lincoln National Life Foundation, Fort Wayne, 

Rare Book Division, Library of Congress 
Still Pictures Division, Library of Congress 



(All references are to Ford's Theatre, Washington, unless stated otherwise. 

are in italics. ) 

Plays produced at Ford's 

Academy of Music, 19; (New York), 123; (Philadel- 
phia), 7 

Acquisition of site, 5, 7, 1 7 

Acting Mad, 119 

Actress of All Work, 110 

Adjutant General, War Department, xi, 63. (See also 
Records and Pensions, Office of.) 

Administrative data, 1 

Allen, Mrs. J. A., 114 

Alleyway, rear, 7, 16 (Fig. 10), 30, 61, 83, 89 

Ambition, or The Throne, The Tomb, and the Scaffold, 
111, 122 

Anchors, wall, 25 

Anthony and Cleopatra, 1 10 

Apostate, The, 109, 121 

Appy, Henry, 122 

Architect, U.S. Capitol, 20. (See also Edward R. 

Architectural data, 69-93. {See also Historic American 
Buildings Survey Drawings ( HABS ) . ) 

Archives. (See National Archives.) 

Army Medical Museum, xi, 63 

Arth, George M., 45 n.l62 

As You Like It, 113, 114 

-Assassination of Lincoln, ix, xi, 1, 51, 56—61, 82; assas- 
sin's route, 7, 51; escape of, xi; footsteps, xi. {See 
also Abraham Lincoln; John Wilkes Booth.) 

Atheneum. (5ee Ford's Atheneum.) 

Auditorium, 33, 37, 45; HABS drawings. Plates VI, 
XIV; Illus., Figs. 24, 28, 30, 32, 36; restoration notes, 

Avenging Hand, The, 1 14 

Babes in the Woods, 112, 115, 120 

Bailey, Thomas H., xiii 

Balfe Company, 1 1 

Baltimore Sun, 21 ; Weekly Sun, 33 

Basement, 47, 59, 63; HABS drawings, Plates II, XI, 

XIII, XIV; Illus., Fig. 52; restoration notes, 69, 71, 

Battle of Shrewsbury, 1 1 2 
Beauty and the Beast, 110 
Becks, George, 1 15 
Benches, Family circle, 33, 39, 103; HABS drawings, 

Plates V, XII, XIV; Illus., Figs. 28, 31; restoration 

notes, 93 
Berghaus, A., 30, 45 
Bergman, Carl, 122 
Berry, Thomas, 17 

Bianca, or The Italian Wife's Revenge, 111, 121 
Birth of Cupid in the Bower of Ferns, The, 118, 119 
Bishop, Mr. and Mrs. C. B., 13, 107, 109, 113, 114, 116, 

Blondin on the Low Rope, 1 18 
Board of Trustees, 5, 7, 17 
Bold Stroke for a Husband, A, 12 
Bonnie Fishwife, The, 109 

Booth, John Wilkes, xi, xiii, 51, 56, 61, 79, 83; assassi- 
nates Lincoln, 59-6 1 ; escape route, xi, 7, 36 ( Fig. 25 ) , 
52 (Fig. 37), 60 (Fig. 44), 60-61; Lincoln sees, in 
The Marble Heart, 53; plays at Ford's, 53, 109, 121; 
program of, 106 (Fig. 60) 

Booth, Junius Brutus, 117, 118 

Born to Good Luck, or An Irishman's Fortune, 1 16 

Bowers, Mrs. D. P., Ill, 112, 119, 121 

Boxes, 27, 35, 37, 39, 43, 47; HABS drawings. Plates 
III-V, XII, XIV, XVII ; Illus., Figs. 24, 27, 28, 29, 37, 
43, 44; restoration notes, 73; tickets, 35. {See also 
Presidential box. ) 

Bradley, Isaac S., 45 n.l62 

Brady, A. W., 115 

Brady, Mathew M., 35 

Broker of Bogota, The, 113, 121 

Brown, Joseph F., 1 7 

Brutus, orThe Fall of Tarquin, 113, 121 

Buckingham, John M., 57, 59 

Bull in a China Shop, A, 115 

Burroughs, Joseph ("Peanuts"), 55, 59, 61 

Callis, George R., 34 

Calvert, Rep. Charles B., 17 

Camille, orThe Fate of a Coquette, 111,1 19, 121 

Capital city, 53 

Capital prison, 69 

Capitol, U.S., 11 

Garland, Louis J., 82 

Ceiling, HABS drawings, Plates VI, XII, XIV; Illus., 
Fig. 24; restoration notes, 83, 84, 93 

Chandeliers, 45; HABS drawings, Plate VI; Illus., Figs. 
24, 28, 31. 32, 34, 36, 43, 61. {See also Lighting.) 

Chicago Daily Tribune, 1863-1865, 11 

Child of the Regiment, 1 18 

Christy, George, xiii ; Minstrels, 7, 116; Opera House, 7 

Civil War, xi, 53 ; Centennial celebration, xi, 1 3 

Clark, Edward R., xiii; instructions for alteration of 
Ford's Theatre, 65 (Fig. 47); proposal for strength- 
ening west fagade, 75 (Fig. 51) 

Clarke, J. S., 112, 114, 115, 120, 121 

Clock, lobby, 36, 59; greenroom, xii, 103 (Fig. 58) 

Clokey, Robert D., 17 

Colleen Bawn, The, 110 

Comedy of Errors, 1 15 

Congressional charter, 17. {See also HR 684.) 

Conjugal Lesson, ^,111 

Coriolanus, 114, 120 

Cornerstone, 21; architectural exploration for, 22 (Fig. 

Corps of Engineers, War Department, 20, 25, 63, 89 

Costs, construction, xii, 19; restoration, preliminary es- 
timate, 1 

Counterweights, 47 

Cox, Walter S., 19 

Coyle, John F., 19,25 

Culpeper National Cemetery, 63 


Currier, Lt. Simon P., 52 (Fig. 37), 61, 73 n. 15, 89 

Curtain, main, 45 ; drop, 45, 47 

Daiker, Virginia, xiii 

Daily National Intelligencer (D.C.) (See National In- 

Damon and Pythias, 113, 120 

Dant, George W., 63 

Da Parma, Mario, xii 

Day After the Wedding, A., 110, 114, 121 

Day Too Late, A., 109, 110 

Death of Hotspur, The, 1 12 

Debonay, J. L., 59 

Deed of trust, 19 

Denin, Susan, 114, 115, 116 

Dennin, William A., ix, xiv 

Depositions, Ford's Theatre employees, 15 

Deserter, The, or Military Execution, 117 

Diamond, J., 1 16 

Diana, or Love's Masquerade, 121 

Dillon, O. D., 28 

Diorama, xi, 108 (Fig. 61 ) 

Disaster, Ford's Theatre (1893), 63 

Dombey and Son, 117 

Dominique, the Deserter, 110 

Don Sebastian, 122 

Dondero, Rep. George, xiii 

Doors, xi, 21, 22, 35, 39, 43, 45, 47, 56, 57, 59, 61, 63; 
HABS drawings. Plates II-V, VIII, X-XIV, XVII, 
XVIII; Illus., Figs. 14, 17-23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 
36, 38, 39, 44, 48, 50, 52, 55, 62 ; restoration notes, 73, 
75, 79,81,87,89, 93. {See under North wing; Ford's 
Theatre, Washington; Star Saloon; South addition.) 

Doyle, Rep. Clyde, xiii 

Dress circle, 26, 33, 35, 39, 43, 51, 57, 59, 63, 101, 103, 
104; HABS drawings. Plates IV, VI, XII, XIV; Illus., 
Figs. 24, 28, 30, 31, 32, 43; restoration notes, 79, 
81, 93; seat plan, 41 (Fig. 29) ; tickets, 37 (Fig. 26) 

Dressing room annex, 1. {See North Wing.) 

Drops, 47 

Drunkard, The, or The Fallen Saved, 111 

Dunbar, Richard, 61, 73; contract for alteration of 
Ford's Theatre, 71 (Fig. 50) 

Dundreary, Lord, 57. {See E. A. Emerson.) 

Dutch Actor, The, 1 15 

Dyott, John, 53 

East Lynne, or The Elopement, 1 18 

East wall. {See Ford's Theatre; Elevations; North 
wing; South addition; walls.) 

Easy Shaving, 1 12 

Elevations, architectural, 82, 83, 89; alleyway, rear, 93; 
Floors: Basement, 88, 90, 91, 94, 95; lobby. Tenth 
Street, 86, 88, 91, 93, 95; orchestra circle, 86, 88, 93, 
95; orchestra pit, 93, 95; parquette, 93, 95; dress 
circle, 86, 88, 93, 95; family circle, 86, 88, 93, 95; 
presidential box, 95, 96; stage, 82, 83, 90-95; paint 
bridge, 90, 91, 94, 95; fly gallery, 89, 90, 91, 94, 95; 
HABS drawings. Plates VIII-XVI; North wing, 86, 
88, 90, 92, 94; South addition, 86, 88, 90-92; Tenth 
Street grade, 86, 88, 90, 91, 94; Walls, west (front, 
Tenth Street), 87, 93; north, 88, 89, 93; east, 89, 90, 
93; south, 89, 91, 93; Windows, 89, 97; Roof, 85, 86, 

Emerson, E. A., 57 

Ernani, 122 

Erring and Penitent Wife, The, 118 

Ethiopian Melange, 1 16 

Evening Star (D.C), 53 

Evening Star Newspaper Company, 7 

Everybody's Friend, 111, 114, 115, 120 

"Exhibit 48", 52 (Fig. 37), 61, 73 n.l5 

Fa?ade (front. Tenth Street), xi, 26, 31, 35, 39, 43, 63, 
HABS drawings, Plate VIII; Illus., Figs. 12, 14, 17, 
18,22,23, 39, 48 ; restoration notes, 8 1 

Family circle, 26, 27, 33, 35, 39, 51, 63, 103; HABS 
drawings. Plates V, VI, XII, XIV, XVII, XVIII; 
Illus., Figs. 24, 28, 31, 32; restoration notes, 79, 81, 
87, 93; "Hard" tickets, 37 (Fig. 26). {See also 

Family Jars, 109 

Fanchon, the Cricket, 107, 109, 117, 119 

Fannon, J. T., 109 

Fashionable Society, 1 12 

Fat Boy, The, 112, 115 

Faust and Marguerite, 1 18 

Federal troops, xi, 6 1 

Fenelon, Eugene, 9, 21 

Fenster, Stephen, 13 n.3, 22 

First Baptist Church, 5, 6, 17, 19 

Flats, 47 

Flies, 47 

Floors, elevation. {See Elevations, architectural.) 

Florence, Mr. and Mrs. W; J., 1 16, 1 17 

Fly boys, 22, 45, 82, 83 

Fly galleries, 22, 45, 47, 48, 82 

Flymen, 45 

Footlights, 45, 47, 73 

Fort family genealogy, xiii, 6 n. 6 

Ford Family Papers, xiii, 65 

Ford, Frank, xiii, 5 n.6, 55, 124 

Ford, George D., xiii, 5 n.6, 65 

Ford, Harry Clay, 5 n.6, 15, 27, 43, 51, 53, 55, 56, 83, 

Ford, James (Jas.) Reed, 5 n. 6, 27, 35, 51, 53, 83 

Ford, John (Jno.) T., xi, xii, 7-9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 
19, 21, 25, 26, 33, 34, 47, 53, 61, 63, 65, 69, 79, 87, 

Ford, Mrs. John T., Ill, xiii 

Ford, Karen, xiii 

Ford Museum. {See Henry Ford Museum.) 

Ford's Atheneum, 9,11,17,21 

Ford's Stock Company, 53 

Ford's Grand Opera House, 65 ; Ford's Theater (Balti- 
more ), xii, xiii, 20 ( Fig. 12),65, 79,81,93 

FORD'S THEATRE (Washington) : 

Actors, leading list of, 107-122; Auditorium, 33, 37, 
45, 83, 93; Basement, 47, 59, 63, 69, 71, 72, 73, 
90, 91, 93, 94, 95; Benches, 33, 39, 40, 44, 80, 
92, 93, 95, 103; Boxes, 27, 35, 37 39, 43, 47, 73, 
101, 103, 104; Presidential box, xi, 35, 41, 43^5, 
52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 93, 101, 104; Box office 

26, 35, 75, 79, 101; Carpeting, 37, 39, 43, 45, 104; 
Ceiling, 34, 83, 84, 92, 93, 95; Chairs, 33, 37, 39, 
40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 63, 101 ; Chandeliers, 34, 40, 44, 
45, 46, 49, 51, 59, 108; Chimneys, 33, 51, 71, 72, 

74, 78, 79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95; 
Clock, xii, 35, 59, 103; Construction, 19-20; Cor- 
nerstone, 21 n.44, 22; Cornice, 20, 23, 26, 63, 87; 
Dome, see Ceiling; Doors, xi, 21-23, 26, 27, 30-32, 
35, 39, 43, 45, 47, 48, 51, 55-57, 59, 61, 63, 73, 

75, 79, 81, 87, 89, 93, 124; Dress circle, 26, 33, 
35, 39, 43, 51, 57, 59, 63, 79, 81, 93, 101, 103, 
104; Elevations, architectural, 82, 83, 85-89, 90- 
97; Fagade (front. Tenth St., west wall), xi, 23, 
25, 26, 27, 31, 35, 39, 43, 63, 81 ; Family circle, 26, 

27, 33, 35, 39, 51, 63, 79, 81, 87, 93, 103; Financ- 
ing construction, 17-19; Footlights, 45, 47; Fore- 
stage, xi, 45, 59, 104; Foundations, 11, 21, 22, 25- 
31, 63, 69, 73, 89; Frieze, balcony, 34, 39, 40, 42, 
44, 46, 51, 59, 84; Greenroom, 22, 47, 48, 55; 
Heating, 33, 35, 39, 51, 79, 81, 87; Lighting, 34, 
39 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 55, 59, 66, 73, 86, 
99; Lobby, 26, 35, 43, 57, 59, 73, 79, 81, 87, 93, 
101, 104; Lookouts, 20, 21, 23, 25, 31, 66, 75, 85, 
86, 87, 88, 91, 95; Lounge, 33, 39, 55, 66, 78, 81, 


FORD'S THEATRE (Washington)— Continued 

95; Orchestra, 21, 45 n.l63, 57, 59, 69, 73, 93, 
116, 123; Orchestra circle, 26, 33, 35, 37, 39, 43, 
45, 69, 73, 93, 101, 103, 104; Parquet (parquette) 
circle, 33, 35, 37, 73, 79, 93, 101, 103, 104; Pedi- 
ment, 20, 23, 26, 87; Pilasters, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 
31, 32, 66, 86; Productions, List of, 107-122; Pro- 
scenium, 43, 45, 47, 63, 83, 104; Rest rooms, 1, 39, 
48. 51, 82: Roof, 21, 25, 32-33, 83, 87, 89, 93; 
Site, 5, 7, 16, 17; Seating, 19, 33, 35, 37, 39, 43, 
55, 56, 59, 73, 81, 101, 103; Square 377, 7, 10, 16; 
Stage, xi, 22, 30, 32, 34, 45, 47, 48, 83, 108; 
Ventilation, 33, 45, 51, 53, 83, 87; Ventilators, 32, 
63, 83, 87; Walls, xi, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26-32, 39, 47, 
51, 59, 61, 69, 73, 75, 79, 81, 83, 87, 89, 93; Win- 
dows, 21, 23, 26, 31, 32, 35, 47, 79, 81, 83, 87 

Forrest, Edwin, 113, 114,120,121 

Forty Thieves, 1 15 

Forty Winks, 1 1 1 

Foster and Sommerget2, 34 

Foster Brothers, 115, 116 

Foster,;. H,, 114, 115 

Foundations, 21, 22, 25-31, 63; HABS drawings, Plates 
II, VIII-XIV; Illus., Figs. 6, 19, 20, 76; restoration 
notes, 69, 73, 89 

Four Sisters, "the, 109, 110,112 

Fourth Baptist Congregation, 5 

FraDiavola, 122 

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, 63 

Freedley, George, xiii 

French Spy, The, or The Siege of Algiers, 1 14 

Frieze, balcony, 39; HABS drawings, Plate IV; Illus., 
Figs. 24, 28, 30, 31,32, 36,43 

Furnishings and exhibition data, 101—104 

Genealogy, Ford Family, xiii, 5 n.6 

Getz, Charles S., 34 

Gifford, James J., 7, 9, 13, 14 (Fig. 8), 20, 21, 26, 55, 

Gladiator, The, 114, 120 

Glenn, S.W., 115, 116 

GofF, Frederick R., xiii 

Golden Farmer, The, 1 15 

Gomersal, Mr. and Mrs. Wm., 118 

Good Friday, 56 

Governor's Wife, The, 109 

Grant, Gen. and Mrs. U. S., 53 

Gray, Alice, 112-1 15, 1 18, 120, 121 

Green Bushes, or Ireland and America 100 Years Ago, 

Greenroom. 22, 47, 48, 55; clock, xii, 103 

Gridiron, 83 ; door to, 48 

Griffith, Elmer Roy, xiii 

Grillo, Scipio, 45 71.162 

Grimes, U.S. Sen. James W., 19 

Grover, Leonard, 7; Grovcr's Theatre. (See Old Na- 
tional Theatre. ) 

Gulager, Chas., 45, 100 (Fig. 55) 

Hackett, James Henry, xiii, 53, 105, 110, 112, 113; pro- 
gram of, 12 (Fig. 7) 
"Hail to the Chief," 57 
Hamlet, 109, 113, 118, 120 
Handy Andy, 116, 117, 119 
Hannon, Camille, xiii 
Happiest Day of My Life, The, 1 1 1 
Happy Man, The, 117 
Harlan, U.S. Sen. James, 19 
Harper's Illustrated Weekly, 63 
Harrington, George. (See George Christy.) 
Harris, Clara, 57 
Harris, U.S. Sen. Ira, 57 
Hartke, Rev. Gilbert V., O.P., xiii 
Haussmann, William M., ix, xiv 
Hawk, Harry, 56 (Fig. 40) 

Hayden, U.S. Sen, Carl, xiii, 13 n.7 

Heath, David W., 17 

Heine, Cornelius W., xiii 

Heir at Law, 111, 115 

Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, 103 

HenrylV, 110, 112,113 

Heme, J. A. 113, 114 

He's Jack Sheppard, 112, 114 

Hidden Hand, The, 114, 119 

His Last Legs, 115 

Historic American Buildings Survey Drawings (HABS 

drawings), Plates I-XVIII 
Historical data, 5-65 
Holland and Company, 34 
Holliday Street Theatre (Baltimore), 5, 7, 19, 20 (Fig. 

12), 23 
Honeymoon, The, 111, 121 
"Honor to Our Soldiers," 56 ( Fig. 40 ) 
Horseshoe Robinson, 111, 113 
House District Committee, 17 
HR684, 17, 18 (Fig. 11), 19 
Hunchback, The, 119, 121 
Husband at Sight, A, 1 10 
Hyman Construction Company, 28 

InandOut of Place, 109,110 

Investigation, Congressional, of Ford Theatre Disaster 

(1893), 63 
Invisible Prince, The, or The Isle of Tranquil Delights, 

Ireland As It Was, 117 
Irish Assurance and Yankee Modesty, 117 
Irish Emigrant, The, 1 16 
Irish Lion, The, 116, 117 
Irish Mormon, The, 1 16 
/( Takes Two to Quarrel, 119 
Italian Wife, The, 119 

Jack Cade, the Bondman of Kent, 114, 120 

Jack Robinson and His Monkey, 115 

Jackson, Sara D., xiii 

Jane Shore, 112, 121 

Jealous Stock Broker, The, 117 

Jensen, Rep. Ben. F., xiii 

Jett, T. Sutton, xiii 

Jewess, The, or The Council of Constance, 1 14 

John Dobbs, 111 

Jonathan Bradford, or The Murder at the Roadside Inn, 

114, 115,121 
Judge Advocate, War Department, 61 

Kahler, Herbert E., xiii 

Kalnins, Laima J., ix, xiv 

Katherine and Petruchio, 118 

Kathleen Mavourneen,OT St. Patrick's Eve, 117, 119 

KatyO'Shiel, 109 

Keene, Laura, 56 (Fig. 40), 122 

Kellogg, Clara Louise, 122 

Kemble-Mason, Charles, 112, 113 

Kessel, Lillian R., xiii 

King Lear, 113, 120 

Kirkpatrick, Scott, xiii 

Knights of the Round Table, 114, 115 

Kretschmar, Mme. Cecilia Y., 115 

Lady Audley's Secret, or The Mysteries of Audley Court, 

111, 119, 121 
Lady Isabel of East Lynn, 112, 119 
Lady of Lyons, The, or Love and Pride, 109, 111, 121 
La Forza del Destino, 122 
Lakes of Killarney, The, 110 
Lambert, Sammy, xiii 
Lamb, James, 82, 1 16 
Lambs Club, 65 
La Sonnambula, 122 


"Laura Waltz," 45 n.l62 

Laurini, Peter, xiii 

Leap Year, or The Ladies' Privilege, 112, 121 

Lessig, Charles W., xiv 

Lesson for Husbands, ^,117 

Library of Congress, xiii, xiv 

Lighting, 39, 45, 47, 51; HABS drawings, Plates VIII, 
XVIII; Illus., Figs. 24, 28, 31, 32, 34, 36, 39, 43, 48; 
restoration notes, 73 

Lincoln, Abraham, ix, xiii, 7, 11, 51, 53, 55-57, 105; 
accepts invitation to Ford's Theatre, 53 ; anathema 
to personal bodyguards, 57 ; assassination of, ix, xi, 
xii, 1, 7, 9, 13, 51, 56-61, 82, 122; at Ford's Athe- 
neum, 1 1 ; Ford's Theatre, xiii, 53 ; list of plays 
attended, 105; programs of. Figs. 7, 59, 60; death of, 
in Petersen House, ix, 61 ; favorite Shakespcrean ac- 
tor, xiii, 12 (Fig. 7) ; Great Emancipator, ix; Mar- 
tyred President, xi; quoted, 11; sees J. W. Booth in 
The Marble Heart, 53, 105, 106 (Fig. 60); story, ix 

Lincoln conspirators, trial of, 61 ; court members and 
jury visit Ford's Theatre, 61 ; hanging of, xi; Records 
of, in National Archives, 125-126 

Lincoln Library, plans for, in new Lincoln Museum, 1 

Lincoln, Mary Todd, 53, 57, 59 

Lincoln Museum, ix, xi, xii, 63, 101; donations to, of 
original decorations and furnishings, xii, 101 (Fig. 
56), 103 (Fig. 58) ; established in Old Ford's Theatre 
Building, ix, xi; restoration plans for, 1, 104; sam- 
ples of original materials in, xii, 104 

Lincoln story, ix 

Lincoln, Tad, 45 n.l62 

Little Barefoot, The, 107, 109, 117 

Little Gypsies, The, 110 

Little Sentinel, The, 109 

Little Treasure, The, 109, 1 14 

Loan of a Lover, 1 19 

Loans, property, 1 7, 19 

Locraft, Bernard F., ix, xi, 20, 87, 89 

London Assurance, 114 

Lord Flannigan, 116 

Lot 9, 17,21,26 

Lot 10, 7, 16 (Fig. 10), 17,26 

Lot 11,7, 17, 19,21,31 

Lounge. 33, 39; HABS drawings. Plates IV, XIV; Illus., 
Figs. 39, 48; restoration notes, 81 

Love Chase, The, 114,121 

Love in Liuery, 114, 115, 120, 121 

Love's Sacrifice, 111 

Luck, or The Gentleman of Nature, 115 

Lucretia Borgia, 120 

Macbeth, 113, 118, 120 

Maccarthy More, 1 19 

Machinery, stage, 47 

Maddox, James L., 34 

Maid With the Milking Pail, The, 110 

Man and Wife, or More Secrets Than One, 1 13 

Man of the World, or The Politician, \10, 113 

Manager's Daughter, The, 110 

Marble Heart, The, 109; J. W. Booth playbill, 106 (Fig. 

Margot. or The Poultry Dealer, 109, 117 
Market Girl of Paris, The, 1 10 
Married Life, 110, 112, 114, 116, 120 
Martyred President, xi 
Maxwell, Richard S., xiii 
May, Juliana, 116 

Mazeppa, or An Untamed Rocking Horse, 119 
McClure, Stanley W., 79 
McCullough, John, 113,114, 120, 121 
McDonough, John E., 1 18, 1 19 
McGuire, James C, 1 7 
McLaughlin, John T., xiii 
Mearns, Dr. David, xiii 
Medical Museum. {See Army Medical Museum.) 

Megill, Hon. H. Newlin, xiii 

Merchant of Venice, The, 109, 1 18 

Merino, Mme. Marie, 121 

Merry Wives of Windsor, The, or Falstaff Outwitted by 

Women, 110,113 
Metamora, The Last of the Wampanoages, 114, 120 
Metzerott, W. G., 7 
Miles, John, 82 
Military agencies, 13; Record Groups of, in National 

Archives, 13 n.8 
Aliriam's Crime, 118 
Mischievous Annie, 116, 117 
MISSION 66, xi, 13, 137 
Mitchell, Maggie, 19, 107, 109, 117,119 
Mitchell, Mary, 1 14 
Model of a Wife, A, 107 
Molding, auditorium, 34 
Money, 109 
Monsieur Jacques, 1 19 

Monsieur Mallet, or The Post Office Mistake, 110, 113 
More Blunders Than One, 1 19 
Morgan, Doris E., 129 
Morning Call, A, 107 
Motie, Miss Adalina, 121 
Much Ado About Nothing, 111, 112, 118 
Mummy, 112 
Musgine, Wm., 45 n.l62 
My Dress Boots, 118 
My Neighbor's Wife, 112, 120 
My Wife's Maid, \2\ 
Myers, F., 116 

Naiad Queen, The, n, 107, 114, 115 

Nan, the Good for Nothing, 110, 111 

National Archives, xii, xiii, 13, 125-126 

National Capital Parks, 20, 22. {See also Region VI.) 

National Intelligencer (D.C.), 19, 25 

National Park Service, ix, xi, xii, 1, 13, 63, 104 

Nation's capital, ix, xii 

New National Theatre, 9, 1 1 

New Way to Pay Old Debts, U^ 

Nicholas Nickleby, 110,121 

Nick of the Woods, or The Jibbenainosay, 111, 121, 122 

Nobleman's Daughter, The, 109, 110 

Noemie, the Foster Sister, 109, 110 

nom de theatre, xiii 

North dressing room wing, 21,31 

North wall. (See Ford's Theatre; Elevations; North 
wing; South addition; Walls.) 

North wing, 1,17, 22, 30, 31, 47, 48, 51, 63; carpenter 
shop, 47, 48, 82; chimneys, 33, 51; Doors, stage, 
22, 31; to flies, 22, 48; Dressing rooms, 11, 22, 31, 
47, 48, 81, 82; star's, 31 ; elevations, architectural, 86, 
88, 90, 92, 94; greenroom, 22, 47, 48, 55; heating, 33; 
lighting, 51; HABS drawings. Plates II-V, VII-X, 
XII; rest rooms, 1, 51; restoration notes, 79, 81, 82, 
83, 87; roof, 33, 51; site, 17; stage manager's office, 
48; stairway, 31. 48; survey plat, 16 (Fig. 10) ; Walls, 
north, 22; south, 31; east, 30; west, 31; wardrobe 
room, 48, 82; Windows, North, 51 ; east, 31, 47; west, 

Northeast annex, 1 

O'Brien, William, xiii 

Octoroon, The, or Life in Louisiana, 112, 113; poster 

of, 58 (Fig. 42) 
"Old Drury." {See Holliday Street Theatre.) 
Old Ford's Theatre Building, xi, 1, 5, 13, 25, 28, 63; 

Illus., Figs, 17, 18, 20, 38, 52 
O'Keefe, Patrick, 28 
Old National Theatre, 7 
Oles, Frank, 129 
Olszewski, Dr. G. J., ix, xiv 
O'Neil, the Avenger, 111 


opposite Neighbors, 1 10 

Orchestra, 47, 57, 59, 123; instruments, 45, n.l63; mem- 
bers of, 2 1, 45 n.l63 ; pit, 45, 47, 69, 73, 93 

Orchestra circle, 26, 33, 35, 37, 39, 43, 45, 101, 103, 
104; HABS drawings, Plates III-V, XIV; Illus., Figs. 
24, 28, 30; restoration notes, 69, 73, 93; seat plan, 38 
(Fig. 27) ; tickets, 37 (Fig. 26), 57 (Fig. 41) 

Othello, 113, 120 

Our American Cousin, HI, 112, 114, 116, 121, 122; 
final playbill of, 56 (Fig. 40) 

Our Country Cousin, 115, 121 

Outalanchet, or The Lion of the Forest, 111, 122 

Owens, John E., 110, 111 

Paint bridge, 22, 47, 48, 82, 83 

Parker, Elmer Orris, xiii 

Parker, John F., 57 

Parker, Jos., 113 

Parquet (parquettc) circle, 33, 35, 37, 101, 103; HABS 
drawings, Plate III, XIV; Illus., Figs. 24, 30; res- 
toration notes, 73, 79, 93; seat plan, 38 (Fig. 27) 

Partition, presidential box, 43, 55 

Passageway SL, SR, 47 

Pauline, or The Mysteries of the Chateau de Bercy, 112 

Paul Pry, or / Hope I Don't Intrude, 111, 112, 114, 

"Peanuts." (5e« Joseph ("Peanuts") Burroughs.) 

Pearl of Savoy, The, or A Mother's Prayer, 1 09, 117 

People's Lawyer, The, 1 10, 1 1 1, 1 12 

PEPCO. (See Potomac Electric Power Company.) 

Peros, John W., xiii 

Pcrros, George P., xiii 

Pet of the Petticoats, The, 109 

Petersen House, death of Lincoln in, 61 

Phillips, H. B., 114 

Phillips, Wm. H., 17 

Pin Rails, 47 

Pioneer Patriot, or The Maid of the War Path, 1 19 

Pirate's Legacy, The, 120 

Pizarro, or The Death of Rolla, 113, 122 

Plant, J. K. T., 34 

Plot and Passion, 112 

Pocahontas, or Ye Gentle Savage, 110, 119 

Poliuto, 122 

Polkinhorn, Henry, 19 

Ponisi, Mme., 120 

Poor Gentleman, The, \l\, 121 

Poor Pillicoddy, 111! 112 

Porter, Dr. Charles, III, xiii 

Post of Honor, The, 110, 111 

Potomac Electric Power Company, 27-28 

Potts, A. R., 17 

Powell, Dr. C. Percy, xiii 

P. P., or The Man and the Tiger, 120 

Precious Betsy, My, 107, 109, 110 

Presidential box, xi, 43-45, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 
101, 104; HABS drawings. Plates IV-VI, XV, XVII; 
Illus., Figs. 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36, 43, 55; resto- 
ration notes. 93 ; tickets, 35 

Proctor, Joseph, 111, 121 

Prompt desk, 47 

Properties, stage, 34 

Public Law 86-455, 86th Congress, ix, xi, 13 n.7; PL 
372, 83d Congress, ix, 13 n.5 

Pulleys, stage, 47 

Quartermaster General, War Department, 20, 61, 63 

Raybold, Thomas J., 55 

Raymond, J. J., 116 

Raymond, John T., 1 1 1 

Rathbone, Maj. H. R.,57 

Rear wall. (See East elevation. ) 

Rebel Chief, The, 1 1 1 

Rebel's Doom, The, or The Death Fetch, 122 

Record groups. {See National Archives.) 

Records and Pensions, Office of, 63. {See also Adju 

tant General. ) 
Reed, Bushrod W., 19 
Reed, Rep. Chauncey W., xiii 

Region VI, 63, 104. {See National Capital Region.) 
Regional historian, ix, xii. {See Randle B. Truett.) 
Retribution, or A Husband's Revenge, 1 18 
Returned Volunteer, The, 116, 117 
Richard III, 109, 113, 117, 118, 120 
Richardson, Col. Ford, xiii 
Richelieu, or The Conspiracy, 113, 120, 121 
Riggs, George W,, 17 

Rip Van Winkle, or A Legend of the Catskills, 1 19 
Rivals, The, or A Trip to Bath, 112, 120 
Robbers, The, or The Forest of Bohemia, 109, 120 
Robert Macaire, 115 
Roberts, J. B., 118 
Roberts, Hon. Ralph R., xiii 
Rogers, B.G., 115 

Romeo and Juliet, 109, 111, 114, 116 
Roof, 21, 25, 32-33; HABS drawings, Plates VII-XIV 

hatches, 33, 87; Illus., Figs. 14, 17, 20, 22, 23, 48, 50 

restoration notes, 83, 87, 89, 93; trusses. Figs., 15, 16 

ventilators, 32, 63 
Ropes, border, 47 
RoryO'More, 117 
Rosedale, or The Rifle Ball, 112 
Rough Diamond, 1 18 
Russian Admiral, The, 1 12 
Rowe, Abbie, xii, 1 1, 24, 25, 27, 82, 108 

Sarah's Young Man, 111 

Satanella, 1 1 

Scenery, 47 

School for Scandal, The, 111, 112 

School of Reform, 120, 121 

Schutter and Lamb, 34 

Schwengel, Rep. Fred., xiii 

Secret, The, or The Hole in the Wall, 109, 122 

Secretary of War, xi, 61. {See also Hon. Edwin M. 

Self, 1 1 1 

Senate District Committee, 19 

Senor Valiente, or The Soldier of Chapultepec, 1 13 

Serious Family, The, \ll, 116, 119, 120 

Seven Sisters, The, 118, 119 

Sewell, Lt. John S., C. E., 25, 75, 89 

Shandy Maguire, 116, 117 

Shea, Jeanne, xiii 

Sheldon, W. P., 116 

She Stoops to Conquer, or The Mistakes of a Night, 1 14, 
120, 122 

She Would and He Wouldn't, 1 1 8 

Shocking Events, 121 

Shylock, or The Merchant of Venice Preserved, 1 19 

Single Life, The, 112 

Sketches in India, 114, 115 

Small, George W., 19 

Soldier's Daughter, The, 1 14 

SoUers, John Ford, xiii, 19 

Solon Shingle, 119 

Somebody's Coat, 1 12, 120 

South addition, 17, 31, 51, 81, 87, 89. {See also Lot 9; 
Star Saloon.) 

South walls. {See Ford's Theatre; Elevations; North 
wing; South addition; walls.) 

Souvenir hunters, 61 

Spangler, Edward ("Ned"), 55 

Speaker of the House, 1 7 

Square 377, 7, 16 (Fig. 10.) {See also Lots 9, 10, 11.) 

Stage, xi, 22, 30, 32, 34, 45, 47, 48, 104; HABS draw- 
ings. Plates III-V, XII-XIV; Illus., Figs. 24, 25, 27, 
31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 43, 44, 61; restoration notes, 69, 


xi, 61 

59: HABS drawings, Plates 

Illus., Figs. 14, 22, 23, 39; 

(See also South addition; Peter 


Stage door, rear, xi, 30, 47 ; Tenth Street, 32, 47 
Stage Struck, 1 16 
Stanford, S. S., 116 
Stanton, Hon. Edwin M., 
Star Saloon, 1, 33, 51, 


restoration notes, 89. 

Taltavul. ) 
Stewart, Charles, 34 
Stewart, Hon. J. George, xiii 
Stock, original subscribers to, 19 
Story of Peggy the Actress, The, 122 
Stranger, The, or Misanthropy and Repentence, 

112, 118,121 
Streets of New York, The, 1 20 
Surgeon General, War Department, 61, 63. {See also 

Army Medical Museum.) 
Surjalla, S., xiii 
Swigart, Paul E., xiii 

Taltavul, Peter, 5 1 , 75 . (See also Star Saloon. ) 

Tamaro, Signor Giuseppe, 121 

Taming of the Shrew, 109, 114 

Taylor, Tom, 53 

Tenney, Franklin, 17 

Tenth Street Baptist Church, 5, 6 

ThalianHall,xii, 81,93 

Three Guardsmen, The, 115, 116 

Thrice Married, or Lucky Stars, 116, 117 

Toodles, 109, 110, 111,112, 114, 115,120,121 

Train, Rep. Russell B., 17 

Trapdoors, 47 

Treasury Department, 61; final settlement, purchase of 
Ford's Theatre, 64 (Fig. 46) ; Treasury Guards flag, 
61;Illus., Figs. 28, 32, 34, 56 

Trenchard, Florence (Laura Keene), 57 

Truett, Randle B., ix, xiii. (See also Regional his- 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, 115 

Two Murderers, 1 14 

Union forces, 53 

Virginius, The Roman Father, 113, 121 
Victims, The, 1 1 1 

Wagner, Herr, 1 16 

Walcot, Mr. and Mrs. C. M., Jr., 112 

Wallach, Richard, 17 

Walls, xi, 2, 22, 25, 39, 43, 51, 59, 61 ; HABS drawings. 
Plates II-IV; Illus., Figs. 6, 12, 14, 17-23, 38, 39, 47, 
48, 51, 52; restoration notes, 69, 73, 75, 79, 81, 83, 87, 
89, 93. (See also Elevations, West, north, east, south; 
North wing ; Ford's Theatre, Washington ; Star Saloon ; 
South addition; Foundations.) 

Wandering Boys, The, 110 

War Department, 20, 63, 89, 93. (See under Adju- 
tant General; Army Medical Museum; Corps of En- 
gineers; Federal troops; Judge Advocate; Military 
agencies; Quartermaster General; Records and Pen- 
sions, Office of; Secretary of War; Surgeon General.) 

Ward, Philip P., xiii 

Washington, D.C., 53, 61 

Washington, Gen. George, 123; engraving of, 55, 61, 
101, 103. (See also Presidential box.) 

Washington Post, 103 

Washington Sunday Chronicle, 33 

Washington Theatre Company, 17-19. (See HR 684.) 

Waters, Dr. E. N., xii, xiii 

Watkins, H., 119 

Webb, Ada, 109, 110 

Webb, Emma, 109, 110 

Weber, Louis, 45 n. 162 

Wept of the Wish-Ton-Wish, 109 

West wall. (See Ford's Theatre; Elevations; Fagade; 
North wing; South addition; Walls.) 

Wheatleigh, Charles, 107 

Wheelock,J., 118 

WhiteHouse, 53, 57 

Wife, The, A Tale of Mantua, 120 

Windows, 21, 23, 31, 32, 35, 47; HABS drawings, Plates 
III-V, VIII-X, XII; Illus., Figs. 12, 14, 16-23. 38, 
39, 48, 52, 54; restoration notes, 79, 81, 83, 87, 89. 
(See also Elevations, West, north, east, south; North 
Wing; Ford's Theatre, Washington; Star Saloon; 
South addition; Lintels.) 

Wine Works Wonders, 113 

Wirth, Conrad L., ix, 13 n.6 

Withers, Reuben, 45 n.l63 

Withers, William, Jr., 56, 57,61, 113, 115, 116 

Whitney and Company, 34 

Woman, or Love Against the World, 112 

Wonder, The, or A Woman Keeps a Secret, 120 

Wreck Ashore, The, 121 

Wright, John B., 9, 116 

Workmen of Washington, The, 122 

Yankee Housekeeper, The, 116, 117 

Young Actress, The, 116, 117 

Young England, 111, 113 

Young, U.S. Sen. Milton R., xiii, 13 n.5 

Young Widow, 116 

Your Life's in Danger, 112 

Youth Who Never Saw a Woman, The, 109, 114 

Zablocki, Rep. Clement J., xiii 
Zucchi, Signora Carozzi, 122 




MISSION 66 is a program to be completed by 
1966 which will assure the maximum protection 
of the scenic, scientific, wilderness, and historic 
resources of the National Park System in such ways 
and by such means as will make them available for 
the use and enjoyment of present and future 

Under this program, outmoded and inadequate 
facilities will be replaced with physical improve- 
ments adequate to meet the heavy demands of 
increased visitation. These improvements will be 
so designed and located as to reduce the impact of 
public use on valuable and destructible features. 

The program seeks to provide visitor services of 
the quality and quantity that the public is entitled 
to expect. At the same time, it strives for the full- 
est possible degree of protection for both visitors 
and resources. 

With specific reference to this National Monu- 
ment, MISSION 66 will completely restore Ford's 
Theatre to its original appearance as of the night 
of April 14, 1865; install the Lincoln Museum with 
modern exhibits of contemporary design in the 
basement; and restore the Star Saloon and north 
wing of the theatre to their original appearance. 


Created in 1849, the Department of the Interior — America's De- 
partment of Natural Resources — is concerned with the management, 
conservation, and development of the Nation's water, wildlife, min- 
eral, forest, and park and recreational resources. It also has major 
responsibilities for Indian and Territorial affairs. 

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department 
works to assure that nonrenewable resources are developed and used 
wisely, that park and recreational resources are conserved for the 
future, and that renewable resources make their full contribution to 
the progress, prosperity, and security of the United States — now and 
in the future.